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First 10 chapters in Music an Appreciation 7th edition

Timbre is synonymous with

tone color

Degrees of loudness and softness in music are called


The relative highness or lowness of a sound is called


The distance between the lowest and the highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce is called

pitch range

The Italian dynamic marking traditionally used to indicate very soft, loud, and very loud are (respectively)

pianissimo, forte, fortissimo

The pitch of a sound is decided by the _______of its vibrations


The distance in pitch between any two tones is called

an interval

When two different tones blend so well when sounded together that they almost seem to merge into one tone, the interval is called a(n)


The frequency of vibrations is measured in

cycles per second

A dynamic accent occurs in music when a performer

emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it

A gradual increase in loudness is known as a


In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a


Music can be defined as

an art based on the organization of sounds in time

In general, the smaller the vibrating element, the ______ its pitch


A thin piece of cane, used singly or in pairs by woodwind players, is called a


The strings of a violin are tuned

by tightening or loosening the pegs

The lowest instrument in the orchestra is the


Systems of electronic components that generate, modify, and control sound are called


A part of an instrument's total range is called a


The bow that string players usually use to produce sound on their instruments is a slightly curved stick strung tightly with


The highest woodwind instrument in the orchestra is the


If a string player uses vibrato by rocking the left hand to produce small pitch fluctuations it is because

using vibrato make the tone warmer and more expressive

Plucking the string with the finger instead of using a bow is called


Symphonic bands differ from symphonic orchestras in that they

do not contain a string section

A piece of wood or plastic that brass players use to alter the tone of their instruments is called a


Woodwind instruments are so named because they

were originally made of wood

The range of a singer's voice depends on

training and physical makeup

The very high-pitched tones that are produced when a string player lightly touches certain points on a string are called


The main tool of composers of electronic music during the 1950s was the

tape studio

The regular pulsation that divides music into equal units of time is known as a(n)


When a measure has two beats, it is said to be be in

duple meter

The organization of beats into regular groups is known as


"Vivace" is a tempo indication which denotes a

lively tempo

In syncopation, a _________ is accented

weak beat

Rhythm is the ordered flow of music through


When individual notes are stressed by being played louder or longer than surrounding notes the are said to have

an accent

Which of the following tempo indications is the slowest: allegro, allegretto, vivace, presto?


A system of writing music is known as


The _______ shows the pitch of each line and space on the staff


Adding a dot to a note increases its duration by


The meter of a piece is shown by its

time signature

A C# is _________ than a C.


A combination of three or more tomes sounded at the same time is called

a chord

Harmony refers to

the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other

The triad built on the fifth step of the scale is called the

dominant chord

Resolution refers to a(n)

dissonant chord moving to a consonant chord

________ in music adds support, depth, and richness to a melody.


When the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously, it is called a broken chord or


A combination of tones that is considered unstable and tense is called a


Traditionally, a composition would almost always end on a

tonic chord

A series of chords is called a(n)


A combination of tones that is considered stable and restful is called a


Key refers to

a central tone, chord, and scale

Another term for key is


In traditional western music, the _______ is the smallest interval between successive tones of a scale

half step

A shift from one key to another within the same composition is called


The central tone around which a musical composition is organized is called the


Retaining some features of a musical idea while changing others is called


Ternary form can be represented as

as statement, contrast, return; or A B A; or A B A'

The organization of musical ideas in time is called


The form consisting of a musical statement followed by a counterstatement would be called


Changes in musical style from one historical period to the next are usually


We know little about the music of very ancient civilizations because

very little notated music has survived from these cultures

Musical texture refers to

how layers of sound are related to each other

When a melodic idea is presented by one voice or instrument and then immediately by another voice or instrument, the technique is calledc


A round is an example of

strict imitation

When there is one main melody accompanied by chords, the textures is


The texture of a single melodic line without accompaniment is


Performance of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice is described as playing or singing in


The technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called


When two or more melodic lines of equal interest are performed simultaneously, the texture is


Contrapuntal texture is sometimes used in place of the term

polyphonic texture

A melodic phrase ending that sets up expectations for continuation is known as a(n)

incomplete cadence

A series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole is called a


The emotional focal point of a melody is called the


The repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch is called a


A resting place at the end of a phrase is called a


A shorter part of a melody is called a


Legato refers to playing or singing a melody

in a smooth, connected style

A melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music is called a


A melody is said to move by steps if it moves by

adjacent scale tones

A short, detached style of playing a melody is known as


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