Terms in this set (72)
When did conservatism first appear?
-late 18th century, primarily as a reaction to the ideas and changed brought about by the French Revolution
-was about conserving the order dominated by the landed aristocracy, established church and the monarchy
What did Authoritarian or Reactionary conservatives believe?
1. Defended the traditional social order, autocratic rule of monarchs and a rigid set of hierarchical values
2. Social dominance of institutions should continue and resisted all attempts to introduce constitutional government and parliamentary reform
3. In Germany and Italy in the 20th century, Autho Con backed fascist leaders in the hope of restoring the old established order: Hindenburg
Why and what were conservatives forced to come to terms with?
The establishment of industrial capitalism and constitutional government by liberalism in the 19th Century. They were forced to come to terms with these developments and offer a more pragmatic conservatism
What were Edmund Burkes beliefs and how did they contribute to pragmatic conservatism?
-Burke insisted that Conservatives needed to allow a certain amount of change to maintain the wider features of traditional society
-any change should be pragmatic with the aim of preserving the conservative values of tradition and authority
-pragmatism was to be a guide for policy decisions
How did One nation conservatism emerge?
-been seen as being adopted by the Conservative Party through Disraeli in the 19th Century and Baldwin in the 1920's
What do these one nation conservatives under the influence of Disraeli believed?
-widespread social inequality brought about by industrial capitalism brought with it a social disorder, socialism and revolution
-for those in positions of power, wealth and privilege brought with them social obligations: a Paternalistic conservatism in which the poor should be helped in times of difficulty
-this was an adaptation of the old concept of 'noblesse oblige' the rich helping the poor in times of need
How did Christian democracy emerge?
-in countries where Auth Con had been prevalent, but became discredited through its association with fascism
-following WW2 many European Conservatives established Christian Democratic Parties
-these practised a form of democratic corporatism in which social institutions form a social partnership to preserve social stability
-Christian democrats have supported a social market economy where a strong welfare state and Keynesian-type economic policies create a sufficient level of wealth to preserve authority, order and social stability
What were the beliefs of the new right?
-Since Burke there has been a partially libertarian strand with regards to the economy
-this has maintained that the running of the economy is best left to business and free markets and free from interference from the state
-a strong state is required to maintain public order and respect for authority
-the market should be the instrument of social discipline within the economic sphere
-Burkes 'little platoons' should be dominant in terms of organising and preserving social stability
What has occurred to the New right at the end of the 20th Century?
-Was revived, after one nation dominance, in the 1970's under neo-liberalism
-these conservatives believed that state intervention in the economy had damaged economic growth, created militant trade unionism and a welfare dependency culture and a breakdown in public morality
-80's and 90's pursed the rolling back of the state in the economy, whilst strengthening and order role of the state
What is the relationship between conservatism and liberalism?
-developed in reaction to liberal ideas of the emerging bourgeoisie in the early 19th Century
-this had differing view on human nature, nature of authority, the need for social change and the nature of society
-19th century it's main aim was to prevent or limit the changes advocated by liberalism
What was its main concern in the 20th century?
-prevent or limit the moves towards greater economic equality pursued by various strands of socialism
-conservatism found itself challenged to the right from fascism, sometimes working with it
What is the argument of Conservatisms position at the end of the 20th century?
-conservatism ended the 20th century in a relatively strong electoral position although it had adopted significant sections of classical liberalism economic agenda in order to do so
-conservatism had transformed itself almost out of existence
-in the political and social spheres it main idealogical adversary is modern liberalism with it support for a rights based society, support for individual freedom, cultural tolerance and a multilateral international order
What is the conservative view of human nature?
-Have largely pessimistic and non-utopian view of human nature
-regarded as imperfect, a situation that cannot be remedied
What are humans regarded as?
1. Psychologically limited
3. Fearing isolation and instability
4. Preferring safety and security
5. Morally imperfect
6. Selfish and greedy, desiring power
What do humans therefore need?
-Like to belong, know where they stand in society
-humans desire a sense of identity and a sense of connectedness
-there is a need for a stable and predictable social order
-too much liberty creates the potential for insecurity, anarchy and uncertainty
What is the traditional con view of human nature?
-human intellect and reasoning is limited; as such we are incapable of fully understanding the world and universe around it- Oakeshott
-abstract ideas and theories are therefore likely to be incorrect
-an empirical approach to change
-humans need to take a pragmatic approach to change, avoiding dogma ideals since these could lead to among society worse
What is the new right view of human nature?
-in the sphere of economics humans are considered capable of acting rationally
-these were used in the 1980's to explain why the economic system needed to adopt a free-market approach
-however the adaption of economic theories based on John Nash's have theory rested on very negative views of human nature, humans are strictly self-interested and non-altruistic
Why do conservatives feel there is a need for secure social order?
-given that humans are dependent and security seeking and feel the need to belong, there is a need for a secure social order
-society provides security, gives meaning to life and allows people a sense of freedom
What did herder and Hegel say about society?
-society is organic, shaped by necessity and thus cannot simply be altered or rearranged at will
What is the organic society?
-one that has developed naturally over time, shaped by experience
-a society that has proved its worth overtime and it would be unwise to attempt any radical alterations to its essential character
What concept holds together the organic society?
-different institutions within society survive because they perform an important function and form part of a greater whole
-society is held together by traditions, common morality and authority
-duties and obligations help to bind society, but rights without duties create an atomistic and disaggregated society
What are the dangers of changing this organic society?
-unwise to reform or change this natural order, or to engage in progress
-moral and cultural pluralism threaten the fabric of this 'organic society'
-traditional morality and established values that preserve a common culture will preserve the social order
-this leads to support for nationalism: patriotism gives a sense of identity
What is the traditional conservative view of the organic society?
-the poor as a potential threat to an organic society
-the wealthy have duties and obligations towards the poor
-by acting as paternalistic benefactors they can stop the poor from being attracted towards a revolution and destroying the organic nature of society
What is the Christian Democrats view of organic society?
-believe in creating a society where harmony and balance are of great importance
-this is achieved by incorporating a wide range of institutions into mainstream society
What is the new right view of the organic society?
-neo-conservatives see the welfare state as contributing towards the breakdown of the family and undermining culture of traditional values
-respect for the family and the discipline of market economics are more likely to preserve the organic society
-neo-cons fear a breakdown of the traditional social order caused by liberal progressive and permissive values
How can the traditional society be preserved?
1. AUTHORITY- people will know their place in society
2. SOCIAL DISCIPLINE- necessity of living within society and to engage with others
3. LAW AND ORDER- strong state is needed
4. PUBLIC MORALITY
5. NATIONAL IDENTITY-source of social cohesion
6. TRADITIONAL FAMILY- return to family values
What are neo-conservatives?
-are social authoritarians, believing too much freedom leads to immorality and evil behaviour
-they are born again Christians
-traditional Christian morality is favoured over a pluralist morality, the latter leading to a lack of cohesion in society
-people will end up in a 'moral wilderness'
-they see multicsm as damaging communities and causing racial tensions
What has neo-cons ideas led to in the UK and USA?
-this has led to opposition to immigration, the EU and European integration
-in the USA it has led to opposition to Islamic Fundamentalism
What is neo-liberal conservatism?
-placed less importance on the role of society and adopted a stance that sees individual rights particularly in respect to economic affairs as more important
-community should not interfere in the workings of the market
-organic society is of diminished importance within neoliberal thinking
What is tradition?
-conservatives favour traditional order, desire to resist change
-conservatives prefer an empiricist approach rather than a rationalist one
Why do conservatives support the concept of tradition? Part 1
-political ideas should be based on experience and history
-Oakeshott said rationalism is undesirable, humans cannot be perfected and politics based on 'what works'
-Institutions, customs and social practises that have endured through time have been of value and should be maintained
-institutions experience a form of natural selection
-CHESTERTON- accumulated wisdoms of the past should be used as a guide for the living
-established traditions are familiar, generate a sense of security, a sense of identity and an historically-based sense of belonging
-change represents a leap into the unknown, creates uncertainty and insecurity
-it is better to rely in traditions and customs since these are tried and tested and have a proven tracks record
What is the traditional con view of tradition?
-Burke emphasised a pragmatic approach to change
-moderate and measured change was acceptable of such change was designed to conserve the traditional order
-'change in order to conserve'
What is the neo-conservative view of tradition?
-placed great emphasis on respect for traditional features of society such as family, church nation and respect for authority
-they have created security and stability in the past and thus should continue to do so
What is the neo-liberal view of tradition?
-embraced rational and abstract economic theories
-generally less interested in tradition than traditional cons
-particularly if it prevents the operation of free markets
-Thatcher was willing to confront traditional institutions that were seen as anti-free market
-primarily the importance of the free markets overrides support for tradition
What is the conservative view of hierarchy?
-believe that society is naturally hierarchical
-layers in society are fixed and established
-intrinsic feature of human society
-inequality is a key feature of an organic society
-different social responsibilities lead to inequalities in wealth, power and status
-equality is impossible since power, status and property are unequally distributed
For cons why does authority need to exist in society?
-Humans are morally imperfect but anti-social behaviour must be deterred
-law, strong govt and tough penal regimes are needed
-the law exists to preserve order
What is authority and it's importance?
-rises naturally out of necessity, the need to protect people
-authority gives guidance and support allowing people to 'know their place in society'
-disciplined individuals respect authority
-authority bring society together and is important that the correct leadership exists in order to perform this role properly
-if those with experience are in authority them the natural order will prevail
What is the pragmatic one nation conservatives view of authority?
-'with authority comes responsibilities'
-paternalism and 'Tory welfarism' help preserve the posits of the hierarchy since, once avoided, the poor no longer pose a threat to social order
What is the Authoritarian con view of authority?
-offered total support for autocrat I rule in Central and Eastern Europe
-anything other than respect for authority was considered to be heretical and opposed with considerable force and the full weight of the law
What is the neoliberal view of authority?
-sees the free market as imposing market disciplines, weakening organised labour and strengthening established authority in the workplace
-a return to free-market capitalism allowed the authority of traditional institutions to be regained
What is the neocons view of authority?
-favour strong support for authority, order and moral discipline
-liberal permissiveness society has led to welfare dependancy
-'freedom without responsibility' Murray
As a traditional cons what did Burke believe about libertarianism?
-believed that liberal economist could enhance the cons values of authority, duty and property
-state intervention in the economy was opposed
-the market acts as a form of social discipline, threat of dismissal, redundancy and unemployment
-Burkes little platoons in the social sphere could be dominant in terms of organising and preserving social stability
What are the limits of libertarianism within traditional conservatism?
-strong state is needed to maintain public order and respect for authority
-also sits strongly paternalistic and patrician approaches which believe that those in authority know what is best for the mass of the people
How has neo-liberalism been aligned with libertarianism approach?
-consider the state as coercive and unfree, with collectivism destroying individual initiative and self-respect
-self reliance will flourish if allowed to do so the individual and the market make the right choices
-favour individual liberty
-social welfare causes poverty and as it encourages dependancy on the state and destroys self-help and individual initiative
What is the conservative view of libertarianism?
-tends to be highly authoritarian with great respect given to traditional authorities
-Permissiveness is seen as leading to social and moral decline- society pay dominated by license, drugs, alcoholism and moral and cultural relativism
What type of state do con favour?
-a strong state to preserve order and respect for authority
-state is an intrinsic part or organic society
-society would collapse in chaos
What is the function of the state
-to establish and preserve law and order
-act as a moral authority and to protect the nation from external attack
What is the traditional conservative view of the state?
-favour a state that can preserve Authority, tradition, the importance of property and the organic society
What is the authoritarian view of the state?
-favoured dictatorships to maintain social order
-they were considered to be organic and hierarchical
-liberty, constitutional govt and liberty would lead to weakness and disorder and the destruction of tradition and society and the nation
What is the pragmatic conservative approach to the state?
-paternalistic and limited constitutional state
-state should move slowly and pragmatically with the times in order to survive
-but nevertheless would remain strong
What is the Christian democrat view of the state?
-support constitutional govt
-representative democracy with the aim of preserving social order and traditional values
-state governs in partnership with intermediate institutions
What is the new right view of the state?
-the new right sees welfare as destroying traditional values
-they have tended to favour a strong but limited state
What is the neo liberal view of the state?
-regard the state as coercive
-the role of the state should be reduced and kept limited
-state should not be involved with the running of the economy and should only concern itself with issues of law and order
-role is to protect private property
What is the neo conservative view of the state?
-favours a strong state that is tough on law and order
-crime is only prevented by more police, severe punishments, longer prison sentences ect
-they favour the nation state and are suspicious of international forms of govt
Why has property been of great importance to conservative?
-acts as an economic incentive
-provides security, confidence and assurance in an uncertain world
-ownership encourages respect for the property of others
-property can be seen as an extension of the individuals personality and character
-property brings social obligations and should safeguard for future generations
What is the authoritarian view of the economy?
-favoured the preservation of the feudal economy with the leading role of the aristocracy and monarchy and the subordinate position of the peasantry
What is the one nation cons view of the economy?
-favours a managed capitalism
-one nation cons using Keynsian economics in order to safeguard social order
What is the Christian democrat view of the economy?
-support Keynesian economics and a social market economy
-a free market economy combined with a strong welfare state and public services
-this will guarantee widespread wealth and thus stability and order
What is the new right view of the economy?
-property allows people to have a stake in society
-pro-capitalist favouring a free market economy, private property and opposing any form of collective running of the economy
-it has thus opposed nationalism, planning and co-operatives
What was the new right for Nozick?
-all policies concerning wealth and redistribution and welfare amount to a form of property theft
-welfare state is legalised theft and undermines the value of property as a concept
What is the neo- liberal view of the economy?
-favour free market economics and minimal state intervention in the economy
-believe that planned and managed economies cannot cope with the complexity of modern economics and will lead to shortages, inflation and unemployment
How did traditional cons emerge?
-In response to the challenge of the French Revolution
-in opposition to the various radical, revolutionary and republican tendencies associated with it
-much of the 19th century conservatism was an attempt to preserve the traditional way of life
What occurred in Britain?
-a more pragmatic approach was taken and was followed on the continent
What did Disraeli do?
-developed one nation conservatism in the 1840's but was not until Baldwin in the 20's and 30's that conservatism adapted to a formally one nation approach in practise
What did one nation Tories adopt?
-paternalistic, patrician and welfarist approach
-to prevent the poor from being attracted to socialism and revolution, structures and beliefs were needed to draw them into national society
What did authoritarian conservatives sought to do?
-hold back the tide of progress, resisting constitutional government, economic advance, democracy and the freedoms of civil society
-strong authoritarian states and repressive legal systems were established to preserve the dominance of traditional institutions
What did the Christian democrats adopt?
-adopted after the failure of fascism on the continent
-tends to be less paternalistic than one nation and more engaged with the important institution of society
What is the view of the welfare state for neo cons?
-did not create social cohesion but rising divorce rates, family breakdown and increase in single parent families
What was the case for neo-liberals?
-demand management and corporatist structures had not produced national cohesion or strong economic growth, but trade union militancy, state bureaucracy, a bloated public sector, rising unemployment and inflation
-a return to free market was needed to deliver a strong economy
How may there have been tensions between the new right?
-neo liberals sought to diminish the role of the state
-neo cons sought a strong authoritarian state that would impose moral discipline, constraint and social cohesion
How can it be suggested that they complement each other?
-neoliberal desire a limited and restrained state in terms of economics but this is criticised as leading to a breakdown and rising crime rates
-neocons desire a strong and moral state, should deal with the law and order problem cause by neo-liberal economics