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76 terms

Psych 3&4

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Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of
cognition
Consciousness is
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
The ability to simultaneously monitor the shape as well as the color of an object best illustrates the value of
dual processing
Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates
dual processing
A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates
selective attention
In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated
inattentional blindness
The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger
selective attention
Circadian rhythm refers to
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24 hour cycle
The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the
suprachiasmatic nucleus
After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal
circadian rhythm
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
REM sleep
A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as
sleep
During the course of a full night's sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in
REM sleep than in stage 4 sleep
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
90 minutes
Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to
Parental influences
Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates
selection affect
In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is
More likely to affect a child's English accent
Cultural diversity best illustrates our
Adaptive capacities
Norms are best describes as
Rules for socially acceptable behavior
Personal space refers to
The distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people
Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in
Genetic predispositions
Individualism is to collectivism as ______ is to ________
Nature; nurture
A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
Social harmony
Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are
More likely to display signs of humanity and more likely to defer to others wishes
Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to
Participate in house hold activities
Girls typically play in _____ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend _____ time with friends than do boys
Smaller; more
Women are more likely than men to
Tend and befriend
A human egg contains _____ chromosomes and human sperm contains _______ chromosome
An x; y or x
Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess____ during their personal development.
Testosterone
Gender role refers to
A set of expected behaviors for males and for females
Gender identity refers to
The sense of being male or female
Social learning theorists emphasize that
Observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of
Human responsibility
Sleep deprivation has been shown to
Diminish immunity to disease
Traffic accident rates have been found to _______ after the spring change to daylight savings time and to _______ after the fall change back to standard time
Increase; decrease
Compared to when they were only 20 years old, 60 year olds
Spend less time in deep sleep
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving
Periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from
Narcolepsy
Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?
Sleep apnea
An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of of
Sleep apnea
Compared to adults, children are
More likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking
According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to
It's underlying but censored meaning
According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to
Erotic wishes
REM rebound involves the
Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was attempting to make use of
Posthypnotic suggestion
The need to take larger and lager doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
Tolerance
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and intense craving for the drug. She was experiencing symptoms of
Withdrawal
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicate that
Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help
The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to
Feel powerless to overcome the addiction
Alcohol consumption tends to
Decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control
Sexually aroused women who have been drinking alcohol become _____ disposed to casual sex. Sexually aroused men who have been drinking become _____ disposed to sexual aggression
More; more
Morphine and heroin are
opiates
Amphetamines are to ___ as barbiturates are to ____
Stimulants;depressants
Young teens are most likely to start smoking on order to
gain social acceptance
Which of the following is a psychedelic drug
LSD
Near death experiences are
often accompanied by visions of bright lights
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ____ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ____ to their own.
fear; similar
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our
environment
The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development ofour personal values best illustrates the influence of
the environment
Chromosomes are contained within
all of these types of cells
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
genes
A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
gene
The genome is the complete
set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
all of these characteristics
Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart
The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ____ than on their ___
religious beliefs;personality traits
An infants temperament refers most directly to its
emotional excitability
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
natural selection
Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means
selective mating
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
natural selection
According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be
genetically predisposed
Compared with women, men are more likely to
behave in all these ways
Compared with women, men are ____ likel to feel comfortable about having causal sex with different partners and _____ likely to cite affection as a reason of their first sexual intercourse.
more; less
Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem
mature and affluent
Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their
synapses