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Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of


Consciousness is

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

The ability to simultaneously monitor the shape as well as the color of an object best illustrates the value of

dual processing

Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates

dual processing

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates

selective attention

In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated

inattentional blindness

The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger

selective attention

Circadian rhythm refers to

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24 hour cycle

The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the

suprachiasmatic nucleus

After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal

circadian rhythm

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

REM sleep

A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as


During the course of a full night's sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in

REM sleep than in stage 4 sleep

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

90 minutes

Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to

Parental influences

Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates

selection affect

In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is

More likely to affect a child's English accent

Cultural diversity best illustrates our

Adaptive capacities

Norms are best describes as

Rules for socially acceptable behavior

Personal space refers to

The distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people

Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in

Genetic predispositions

Individualism is to collectivism as ______ is to ________

Nature; nurture

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

Social harmony

Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are

More likely to display signs of humanity and more likely to defer to others wishes

Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to

Participate in house hold activities

Girls typically play in _____ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend _____ time with friends than do boys

Smaller; more

Women are more likely than men to

Tend and befriend

A human egg contains _____ chromosomes and human sperm contains _______ chromosome

An x; y or x

Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess____ during their personal development.


Gender role refers to

A set of expected behaviors for males and for females

Gender identity refers to

The sense of being male or female

Social learning theorists emphasize that

Observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process

Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of

Human responsibility

Sleep deprivation has been shown to

Diminish immunity to disease

Traffic accident rates have been found to _______ after the spring change to daylight savings time and to _______ after the fall change back to standard time

Increase; decrease

Compared to when they were only 20 years old, 60 year olds

Spend less time in deep sleep

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

Periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness

During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from


Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?

Sleep apnea

An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of of

Sleep apnea

Compared to adults, children are

More likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking

According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to

It's underlying but censored meaning

According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to

Erotic wishes

REM rebound involves the

Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was attempting to make use of

Posthypnotic suggestion

The need to take larger and lager doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of


When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and intense craving for the drug. She was experiencing symptoms of


Research on the use of addictive drugs indicate that

Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help

The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to

Feel powerless to overcome the addiction

Alcohol consumption tends to

Decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control

Sexually aroused women who have been drinking alcohol become _____ disposed to casual sex. Sexually aroused men who have been drinking become _____ disposed to sexual aggression

More; more

Morphine and heroin are


Amphetamines are to ___ as barbiturates are to ____


Young teens are most likely to start smoking on order to

gain social acceptance

Which of the following is a psychedelic drug


Near death experiences are

often accompanied by visions of bright lights

At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ____ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ____ to their own.

fear; similar

Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our


The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development ofour personal values best illustrates the influence of

the environment

Chromosomes are contained within

all of these types of cells

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called


A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a


The genome is the complete

set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes

Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in

all of these characteristics

Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing

identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ____ than on their ___

religious beliefs;personality traits

An infants temperament refers most directly to its

emotional excitability

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of

natural selection

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means

selective mating

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates

natural selection

According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be

genetically predisposed

Compared with women, men are more likely to

behave in all these ways

Compared with women, men are ____ likel to feel comfortable about having causal sex with different partners and _____ likely to cite affection as a reason of their first sexual intercourse.

more; less

Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem

mature and affluent

Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their


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