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83 terms

Clinical Procedures Chapter 31

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Apnea
absence or cessation of breathing
Arrhythmia
an abnormality or irregularity in the heart rhythm
Bounding
term used to describe a pulse that feels full because of increased power of cardiac contraction or as a result of increased blood volume
Bradycardia
a slow heartbeat; a pulse below 60 beats per minute
Bradypnea
respirations that are regular in rhythm but slower than normal in rate
Cerumen
a waxy secretion in the ear canal; commonly called ear wax
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
a progressive, irreversible lung condition that results in diminished lung capacity
Diurnal Rhythm
a pattern of activity or behavior that follows a day-night cycle
Dyspnea
difficult or painful breathing
Essential Hypertension
elevated blood pressure of unknown cause that develops for no apparent reason; sometimes called primary hypertension
Febrile
fever; pertaining to an elevated body temperature
Homeostasis
internal adaptation and change in response to environmental factors; multiple functions that attempt to keep the bodys functions in balance
Hyperpnea
an increase in the depth of breathing
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Hyperventilation
abnormally prolonged and deep breathing, usually associated with acute anxiety or emotional tension
Hypotension
blood pressure that is below normal
Intermittent Pulse
a pulse in which beats occasionally are skipped
Orthopnea
a condition in which an individual must sit or stand to breathe comfortably
Orthostatic Hypotension
a temporary fall in blood pressure when a person rapidly changes from a recumbent position to a standing position
Otitis Externa
inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal (swimmers ear)
Peripheral
a term that refers to an area outside of or away from an organ or structure
Pulse Deficit
difference between the apical and radial pulse
Pulse Pressure
the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures
Pyrexia
a febrile condition or fever
Rales
abnormal or crackling breath sounds during inspiration
Rhonchi
abnormal rumbling sounds on expiration, which indicate airway obstruction by thick secretions or spasms
Secondary Hypertension
an elevated blood pressure resulting from another condition, typically kidney disease
Sinus Arrhythmia
an irregular heartbeat that originates in the sinoatrial node (pacemaker)
Spirometer
an instrument that measures the volume of air inhaled and exhaled
Stertorous
a term that describes a strenuous respiratory effort marked by a snoring sound
Syncope
fainting; a brief lapse in consciousness
Tachycardia
a rapid but regular heart rate; one that exceeds 100 beats per minute
Tachypnea
a condition marked by rapid, shallow respirations
Thready
a term that describes a pulse that is scarcely perceptible
Wheezing
a high pitched sound heard on expiration; it indicates obstruction or narrowing of respiratory passages
Vertigo
dizziness; a sensation of faintness or an inability to maintain normal balance
Temporal, Carotid, Apical, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Popliteal, Dorsalis Pedis
Metabolism
the process of chemical and physical change in the body that produces heat
Cardinal Signs
vital signs are also referred to as...
TPR and BP
the four vital signs abbreviated
Anthropometric
measurements including height, weight and other body measurements such as fat composition and head and chest circumferences
60-100
normal range for adult pulse
12-20
normal range for adult respirations
100-120/60-80
normal range for adult blood pressure
Heat Lost and Heat Produced
temperature is the balance between what and what
Continuous Fever
rises and falls only slightly during the 24 hour period
Intermittent Fever
comes and goes, or it spikes then returns to average range
Remittent Fever
has great fluctuation but never returns to the average range; constant fever with fluctuating levels
Fever of Unknown Origin
a fever over 100.9 F for 3 weeks in adults and 1 week in children without a known diagnosis; FUO
Rectal Temperatures
when taken accurately, are approximately 1 degree F higher than oral readings
Axillary Temperatures
are approximately 1 degree F lower than accurate oral readings
Tympanic
this type of thermometer is used in ear
Temporal
this type of thermometer is used on forehead
Axillary
this type of thermometer is used in armpit
Tempa Dot
most common disposable thermometer
Higher
are infants pulse higher or lower than adults?
Higher
is a 30 year old patients pulse normally higher or lower than a 60 year old patient?
Hypothalamus
temperature regulating center
Rate
how fast or slow
Volume
how much blood is being circulated
Rhythm
equal spacing between beats (too fast, too slow or consistent)
Inspiration and Expiration
one complete what and what equals a respiration
Myocardium
heart muscle
140 or above
hypertension diagnosis for high blood pressure; systolic
90 or above
hypertension diagnosis for high blood pressure; diastolic
120 to 139
prehypertension diagnosis number; systolic
80 to 89
prehypertension diagnosis number; diastolic
90 or below
hypotension diagnosis for blood pressure; systolic
60 or below
hypotension diagnosis for blood pressure; diastolic
closest to tympanic membrane
give one advantage to an Aural temp
Infants and children
when would we take an apical pulse
Rate, Rhythm, Volume of Pulse and Condition of Arterial Wall
4 characteristics of pulse
Rate, Rhythm and Depth
3 characteristics of respirations
Rectal
most accurate way to take a temperature
Axillary
least accurate way to take a temperature
Red
rectal thermometers are what color
Blue
oral thermometers are what color
Otitis Externa and Impacted Cerumen
name two reasons you wouldn't take an Aural temperature
First Sound Heard, Systolic
phase I of Korotkoff Sounds
Last Sound Heard, Diastolic
Phase V of Korotkoff Sounds
Cardiac Cycle
sounds are heard through the stethoscope, and gauge readings are taken when the systolic and diastolic sounds are heard
Contracting
during the systolic phase the ventricles are...
Relaxing
during the diastolic phase the ventricles are...