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Kinematics and Dynamics
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Gravity
Terms in this set (68)
meter
base unit of length
kilogram
base unit of mass
second
base unit of time
ampere (coulomb/second)
base unit of current
mole
base unit for amount of substance
kelvin
base unit of temperature
candela
base unit of luminous intensity
slug (lb s2 / ft) or blob (lb s2 / in)
derived units of mass
dyne (g cm / s2) or newton (kg m / s2)
derived units of force
ft lb or erg (g cm2 / s2) or joule (kg m2 / s2)
derived unit of work and energy
ft lb / s or erg / s or watt (kg m2 / s3)
derived unit of power
angstroms
10^-10 m unit of length
nanometers
10^-9 m unit of length
electron-volts
1.6e-19 J unit of energy on atomic scale that can represent the amount of energy an electron gains when it accelerates through a potential difference of 1 volt
vectors
numbers with magnitude and direction
scalars (|A|)
numbers with magnitude
resultant
the sum or difference of 2+ vectors
tip-to-tail method
method of determining the resultant by placing the tip of A to the tail of B
components
perpendicular pieces of the vectors broken to determine the resultant
x-component of a resultant vector
the sum of the x-components of the vectors being added
y-component of a resultant vector
the sum of the y-components of the vectors being added
subtracting vectors
done by adding the same magnitude vector, but in the opposite direction
magnitude
changes when a vector is multiplied by a scalar, resulting in a direction either parallel or antiparallel to its original direction
dot product
method to produce a third vector or scalar by multiplication
right-hand rule
method to determine direction of magnitude, which will be perpendicular to the plane created by the 2 vectors
thumb
part of hand for vector A
index finger
part of hand for vector B
pinky
part of hand for vector C
displacement (x or d)
an object's change in position when moving in space
distance (d)
scalar quantity that describes how far an object is from the origin and is dependent on the pathway the object takes
velocity (v)
vector quantity that includes the speed and direction of an object
speed (v)
distance an object travels per unit of time
instantaneous speed
an object's speed at any instance in time that is always equal to the magnitude of the its instantaneous velocity
instantaneous velocity
a measure of the average velocity as the change in time approaches 0
force (F)
vector quantity that is experienced as pushing or pulling on objects
newton (N)
SI unit of force that is equivalent to 1 kg m / s^2
gravity
attractive force felt by all forms of matter
friction
force that opposes the movement of objects
static friction (fs)
force that exists between a stationary object and the surface it rests upon
normal force
force that is perpendicular to the surface and object rests upon
kinetic friction (fk)
forces that exists between a sliding object and its surface
mass (m)
measure of a body's inertia - the amount of matter in the object
weight (Fg)
measure of gravitational force on an object's mass
center of mass (or gravity)
the weight of an object that can be found at its geometric center
acceleration (a)
vector quantity that represents the rate of change of an object's velocity due to an applied force and is measured in m/s^2
deceleration
acceleration in the opposite direction of the initial velocity
instantaneous acceleration
average acceleration at t approaches 0
Newton's first law
an object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton's second law
F = ma
Newton's third law
every action has an equal and opposite reaction
linear, projectile, inclined planes, circular
motions with constant acceleration
linear motion
motion in a straight line
air resistance
opposes the motion of objects through the air, like friction
terminal velocity
constant velocity an object falls at
projectile motion
curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
circular motion
occurs when forces cause an object to move in a circular pathway
uniform circular motion
instantaneous velocity vector that is always tangent to the circular path
centripetal force
force that always points radially inward, causing the object to move in a circle
dynamics
the study of force and torques
first condition of equilibrium
translational equilibrium exists only when the vector sum of all forces acting on an object is 0
rotational motion
occurs when forces cause the object to rotate around a fulcrum
fulcrum
fixed pivot point that an object can rotate around
torque
moment of force that is generated by the application of force some distanced from the fulcrum
lever arm
distance between the applied force and the fulcrum
second condition of equilibrum
rotational equilibrium exists only when the vector sum of all torques acting on an object is 0
negative
torques that generate clockwise rotation
positive
torques that generate counter-clockwise rotation
Yes, it can be in either translational or rotational equilibrium (or both).
Can a moving object be in equilibrium?
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