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Terms in this set (48)
generation time/doubling time
the time it takes a population to double in number is called the
open system/continuous culture
To maintain cells in a state of continuous growth, nutrients must be added and waste products removed, continuously. this is called an
1. lag phase
2. log phase (exponential phase)
3. stationary phase
4. death phase
5. phase of prolonged decline
what are the five distinct stages of the growth curve?
bacteria taken from one medium and placed into a fresh medium will enter what phase?
things required for multiplication: enzymes, ribosomes, nucleic acids, and ATP
what does a cell synthesize in the lag phase?
bacteria are most susceptible to antibiotics and other chemicals during the ____ phase
primary metabolites (products required for growth)
compounds synthesized during the log phase are known as
late log phase
this is the phase during which endospores are produced. If the bacterium cannot produce endospores, it at least hunkers down and prepares for starvation conditions ahead
during which phase are the most secondary metabolites produced?
secondary metabolites, stationary
antibiotics are _____ _____ and are produced in the ____ phase
the ___ phase is the period when the total number of viable cells in the population decreases as cells die off at a constant rate.
When 99% of the cells have died off
When does the death phase end and the phase of prolonged decline begin?
phase of prolonged decline
this is the phase marked by gradual decrease in the number of viable cells in a population
phase of prolonged decline
in this phase, many members of the population are dying and releasing their nutrients, while a few fitter cells are multiplying
bacteria that live in the harshest conditions, called ______, are members of the domain _____
what is the growth spectrum of bacteria from coldest temp to hottest?
this group of prokaryotes are a common cause of food spoilage
bacteria that cause diseases in humans can be found in which group?
these bacteria grow well at refrigerator temperatures
refrigeration temperatures limit the growth of which group of bacteria?
____ ____ have an absolute requirement for O2
______ ______ cannot multiply if any O2 is present
_____ ____ grow better if O2 is present, but they can also grow with out it, using fermentation or anaerobic respiration in its absence
______ require small amounts of O2 for aerobic respiration
aerotolerant anaerobes; obligate fermenters
_____ ____ are indifferent to O2, meaning that they can grow in its presence, but do not use aerobic or anaerobic respiration; they are _____ ____
superoxide dismutase and catalase
what are the enzymes that detoxify the products of O2?
converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide
what does superoxide dismutase do?
breaks down H2O2 to produce H2O and O2
what does catalase do?
neutrophiles (which is most of them)
preservation of foods by pickling, which acidifies the food, intend to inhibit the growth of bacteria in which pH range?
bacteria that can tolerate high concentrations of salt are called
these bacteria require high levels of sodium to grow
salt and sugar
high concentrations of ____ and ____ have a growth-inhibiting effect and are used in food preservation
this occurs when osmosis causes water to leak from a cell membrane, and the membrane shrinks away from the cell wall.
plasmolysis occurs when the salt concentration outside a cell is greater than on the inside, causing water to pass through the cell by osmosis
when does plasmolysis occur?
this group of prokaryotes uses organic compounds as both a source of energy and a source of carbon. they are by far the most common group associated with humans and other animals.
the act of a virion binding to a receptor on a cell is called
fusion and endocytosis
how can enveloped viruses penetrate animal cells?
how can naked viruses penetrate animal cells?
this is the separation of the nucleic acid from the protein coat
In a DNA virus, the genome is replicated in the ____
In an RNA virus, the genome is replicated in the ____
In an RNA virus, if the genome is positive stranded if it is like ____
In an RNA virus, if the genome is negative stranded it is like _____
describe maturation of new nucleocapsids
_____ is a mechanism of release of a virion from a plasma membrane
the constant production of new virions requires that they acquire their envelope from somewhere
why do enveloped viruses bud from a living cell to be released?
___ viruses generally burst and kill the infected cell. this is the lytic cycle.
the multiplication rate is astronomical since one virion can make hundreds to thousands of progeny per cell it infects, unlike one cell dividing into two, etc.
how does the viral yield (burst size) differ from the exponential growth of bacteria?
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