Invertebrates Vocab

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Archaeocyte
Specialized cell in sponges that makes spicules
Choanocyte
Specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through a sponge
Gemmule
Group of archaeocytes surrounded by a tough layer of spicules; produced by some sponges
Osculum
The large opening at the top of a sponge where water exits the body cavity
Ostium
small pore on the sides of sponges that let water into the central cavity (the spongocoel)
Radial Symmetry
Symmetry in which any number of imaginary planes can be drawn through the center, each dividing the body into equal halves
sessile
staying in one location for an organisms entire lifetime
spicule
a spike-shaped structure made of chalk-like calcium carbonate that provides that structure of a sponge
spongocoel
the central cavity of sponges
Cnidocyte
the stinging cell of cnidarians where digestion located in their tentacles
gastroderm
the inner lining of the gastrovascular cavity
gastrovascular cavity
an internal space in cnidarians where digestion takes place with a single opening
medusa
a body type in which a bell-shaped body with the mouth and tentacles facing downwards
mesoglea
a layer that lies between the epidermis and the gastroderm
nematocyst
stinging structure within each cnidocyte of a cnidarian that is sued to poison or kill prey
nerve net
a loosely organized network of nerve cells that allow organisms to detect stimuli like touch
polyp
a body type in which a cylindrical body is surrounded by arm like tentacles; mouth faces upwards
Tentacle
A long thin structure that forms a ring around the opening to the gastrovascular cavity and contains the stinging cells
Eyespot
A rudimentary arrangements of light sensitive cells
Fission
Form of asexual reproduction I'm which an organism splits into two, and each half grows new parts to become a complete organism
Flame cell
Specialized cell that filters and removes excess water from the body of a flatworm
Free-living
A lifestyle in which animals do not depend upon hosts for nourishment
Ganglion
A concentration of nerve cells that controls the nervous system
Hermaphrodite
An individual that has both male and female reproductive organs
Parasite
A lifestyle in which animals must depend upon hosts for nourishment
Pharynx
A muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity or throat that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food
Proglottid
One of the segments that make up most of a tapeworms body
Scolex
Head of an adult tapeworm; can contain suckers of hooks
Anus
The posterior opening of the digestive tract
Bilateral symmetry
Symmetry in which only a single imaginary plane can divide the body into two equal halves
Cuticle
The thick outside covering of a nematode
Mouth
The anterior opening of the digestive tract
Tube within a tube
A digestive system in which there is a mouth and an Anus with a full digestive tract in between
Clitellum
Broad thickened segments of Annelids that holds the sperm and eggs
Coelomate
An organism that does contain a true coelom
Hydrostatic skeleton
Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles, together with the water in the gastrovascular cavity (or coelom) that enable movement
Nephridia
Excretory organs that filter fluid in the coelom in order to remove cellular waste in Annelids and mollusks
Parasitic
A lifestyle in which animals must depend upon hosts for nourishment
Septum
An internal dividing wall between segments on Annelids
Setae
Tiny bristles in Annelids that are attached to each segment
Aquatic
An organism that lives in the water
Foot
The muscular part of a mollusk
Mantle
Thin layer of tissue that covers most of mollusks body
Radula
A flexible tongue shaped structure used by mollusks in order to feed
Shell
Structure in mollusks made by glands in the mantle that secrete calcium carbonate
Siphon
Tubelike structure through which water enters and leaves a mollusks body
Terrestrial
An organism that lives on land
Visceral mass
Area beneath the mantle of a mollusk that contains the internal organs
External fertilization
The male and female gametes come together outside of the females body
Madreporite
Sieve like structure through which the water vascular system of an echinoderm opens to the outside
Nerve ring
A circle of nerves that surrounds the mouth
Regeneration
The ability to regrow a section of the body such as when a sea star detaches it's arm to distract a predator and then regrowing the arm
Ring canal
The central circle portion of the water vascular system that connects to the tube feet that extend down the arms
Tube feet
A structure that operates much like a suction cup in order to allow Echinoderms to move
Water vascular system
A system of internal tubes in Echinoderms that carries out essential functions such as feeding respiration circulations and movement
Deuterostome
A type of embryonic development in which the anus forms from the blastopore
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
A hollow structure that runs along the back of the body; nerves branch from this that connects to other parts of the body; becomes the spinal cord in most animals
Endoskeleton
An internal support system or skeleton
Non vertebrate chordate
An organism that has a notochord but does not have a back bone
Notochord
A long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord; becomes the vertebrae in most animals
Pharyngeal pouches
Paired structures In the throat region; become the gills of fish and amphibians
Post- anal tail
a tail that extends beyond the anus
Vertebrae
Individual segment of the backbone; encloses and protects the spinal cord
Vertebrate
Animal that has a vertebral column or backbone
Abdomen
The posterior part of an Arthropods body
Book lung
Organ that has layers of respiratory tissue stacked like the pages of a book; used by some terrestrial Arthropods for the exchange of gases
Carapace
The hardest part of the exoskeleton of crustaceans; it covers the cephalothorax
Cephalothorax
The anterior part of an Arthropods body that is formed by the fusion of the head and thorax positions
Chelicerae
One of the two pairs of mouthpieces of chelicerates; these contain the fangs venom
Chelipeds
One of the firsts pairs of legs of Decapods; contain the claws
Chitin
The molecule that makes up the exoskeleton o Arthropods
Complete metamorphosis
A life cycle of uniramians where the juveniles don't look like the adults; type of insect development in which the larvae look an act nothing like their parents and also feed in completely different ways
Head
The anterior part of an Arthropods body; contains the ganglia mouth and eyes
Incomplete metamorphosis
A life cycle of uniramians where the juveniles look like miniature versions of the adults; type of insect development characterized by a similar appearance throughout all stages of the life cycle
Malpighian tubules
Saclike organ in most terrestrial Arthropods that extracts waste from the blood, adding them to feces that move through the gut
Mandible
A mouthpart adapted for biting and grinding food
Molt
The shedding of the exoskeleton while manufacturing a larger one to take its place
Nymph
The immature form of uniramians that undergo incomplete metamorphosis; immature form that lacks functional sex organs and other adult structures
Pedipalps
Pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that are usually modified to grab prey
Spinnerets
Organ in spiders that contains silk glands
Spiracles
Small openings on the side of the body through which air enters and leaves tracheal tubes
Swimmeret
Flipper like appendages used for swimming located along the abdomen of crustaceans
Thorax
The middle part of an Arthropods body that lies just behind the head
Tracheal tubes
Network of branching tubes through which Arthropods breathe