aerobic or cellular respiration
the process that uses oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients to release energy that is required for cellular work.
chemical processing and packaging center. mucus is an example of a product manufactered by this.
rod shaped structures that play an important role in cell division. two of these exist in every cell
a collection of nerve fibers that conduct impulses that control and coordinate body activities
glands and other structures that make hormones and release them directly into the circulatory system
the mass of tissues and organs seperating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels.
a long tube commonly called the GI tract: consists of mouth, trachea, esophagus,stomach, and intestines. accessory organs are the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and salivary glands.
minute protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of the nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. Fundamental, structural, and functional unit of living organisms. Each cell performs necessary functions for its own life. cells multiply by dividing (mitosis)
nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Furnishes oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
a plane that vertically divides the body or some part of it into equal right and left portions. it is also called the medial plane.
brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS); the autonomic system (ANS), or peripheral nervous system, consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
skeleton and muscles: the 206 bones, the joints, cartilage, ligaments and all of the muscles in the body
a spheroid body within a cell, consisting of a thin nuclear membrane and genes or chromosomes.
the fibrous tissues of the body; that which binds together and is the ground substance of the various parts and organs of the body; examples are bones, tendons and so on.
reproductive and urinary organs; also called urogenital system. GU or UG. the urinary organs are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. the reproductive organs are the gonads and various exterior genitalia and internal organs
a thin layer of tissue, serving as the wall of a cell. selectively allows substances to pass in and out of the cell. refuses passage to others.
the space containing the stomach, liver, intestines, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder
also called the frontal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back)
sum of body physical and chemical processes that convert food into elements for body growth, energy, and repair.
the movement of a substance from an area of its higher concentration to an area of its lower concentration
the movement of substances through a membrane from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure.
process in which particles are taken up by enclosure in a plasma membrane sac, includes phagocytosis
a solution that contains more solutes than do cells. in these solutions cells lose water by osmosis and crenate.
a solution that contains fewer solutes than do cells. in these solutions, cells swell and may ruture as water rushes in by osmosis.
solutions that have the same solute to solvent ratio as cells. cause no change in cell size or shape.
begins after DNA has been replicated; it consists of four stages: prophase, mataphase, anaphase, and telophase. the result is two daughter nuclei, each identical to the mother nucleus
is the covering, lining, and glandular tissue. Its functions include protection, absorbtion, and secretion. Epithelia are named according to arrangement (simple, stratified) and cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
is the supportive, protective, and binding tissue. it is characterized by the presence of a nonliving, extracellular matrix produced and secreted by the cells; it varies in amount and consistency. fat, ligaments, and tendons, bones and cartilage are all connective tissues
is composed of cells called neurons, which are highly specialized to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells. neurons are important in control of body processes. nervous tissue is lovated in nervous system structures- brain spinal cord and nerves
is specialized to contract, or shorten which causes movement. there are 3 types: skeletal (attached to the skeleton), cardiac (forms the heart), and smooth (in the walls of hollow organs)
wound healing. may involve regeneration, fibrosis, or both. in regerneration the injured tissue is replaced by the same type of cells. in fibrosis, the wound is repaired with scar tissue. Epithelia and connective tissues regenerate well. mature cardiac muscle and nervous tisse are repaired by fibrosis.
is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane when some of the solutes cannot cross the membrane
involves the movement of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane by process of diffusion
simple squamous epithelial
located in the alveoli of the lungs it functions by absorbtion by diffusion of respiratory gases b/w alveolar air and blood. also found in lining of blood and lyphatic vessels functions by absorbtion by filtration, osmosis, and diffusion
stratified squamous epithelial
is lovated on the surface of lining mouth and esophagus also the surface of skin it is protection
simple columnar epithelial
found on surface of layer of lining of stomach, intestines, and parts of resp. tract. functions by protection, secretion, and absorbtion
cartilage connective tissue
found in part of the nasal septum, larynx, rings of trachea and bronchi, disks b/w vertebrae and external ear. firm but flexible support
muscles that attach to bones, eyeballs and upper third of the esophagus. functions to move bones
smooth (non striated involuntary or visceral)
found in walls of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tract walls of blood and large lymphatic vessels, ducts of glands, intrinsic eye muscles, and arrector muscles of hair. functions to move substances along ducts; change in diameter of pupils and shape of lens