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102 terms

anatomy and physiology chapter 3: cells and body tissues

cells and tissues plus nursing terminology
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organelles
numerous small structures that function like organs in a cell
tissue typing
a procedure performed before transplanting an organ from one individual to another
cilia
fine hair-like extensions found on the exposed or free surfaces of some cells
aerobic or cellular respiration
the process that uses oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients to release energy that is required for cellular work.
ribosomes
produce enzymes and other protein compounds often called "protein factories"
mitochondria
provide energy-releasing chemical reactions that go on continuously.
lysosomes
organelles that can digest and destroy microbes that invade the cell
golgi apparatus
chemical processing and packaging center. mucus is an example of a product manufactered by this.
centrioles
rod shaped structures that play an important role in cell division. two of these exist in every cell
chromatin granules
thread-like structures made up of proteins and DNA
cytoplasm
the internal living material of a cell
interphase
the specific and visible stages of cell division are proceded by this period
pleural cavity
the thoracic cavity containing the lungs, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland
nerve tissue
a collection of nerve fibers that conduct impulses that control and coordinate body activities
endocrine system
glands and other structures that make hormones and release them directly into the circulatory system
mediastinum
the mass of tissues and organs seperating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels.
gastrointestinal system
a long tube commonly called the GI tract: consists of mouth, trachea, esophagus,stomach, and intestines. accessory organs are the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and salivary glands.
cell
minute protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of the nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. Fundamental, structural, and functional unit of living organisms. Each cell performs necessary functions for its own life. cells multiply by dividing (mitosis)
CC
abbreviation for chief complaint
respiratory system
nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Furnishes oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Ca
calcium
c
with
midsaggital plane
a plane that vertically divides the body or some part of it into equal right and left portions. it is also called the medial plane.
C
centigrade
homeostasis
a steady state
spinal cavity
cavity containing the spinal cord
nervous system
brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS); the autonomic system (ANS), or peripheral nervous system, consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
musculoskeletal system
skeleton and muscles: the 206 bones, the joints, cartilage, ligaments and all of the muscles in the body
organ
a body part that performs special functions: ex. heart lungs and liver
cap.
abbreviation for capsule
C&S
abbreviation for culture and sensitivity
cc
abbreviation for cubic centimeter
CATH
abbreviation for catherize
CBR
abbreviation for complete bed rest
nucleus
a spheroid body within a cell, consisting of a thin nuclear membrane and genes or chromosomes.
connective tissue
the fibrous tissues of the body; that which binds together and is the ground substance of the various parts and organs of the body; examples are bones, tendons and so on.
muscle tissue
tissue that contracts; consists of straited (striped), cardiac and smooth muscles.
CA
cancer, carcinoma
cardiovascular system
heart and blood vessels; blood pumped and circulated through body.
CAD
abbreviation for coronary artery disease
epithelial tissue
the skin and living surfaces that protect, absorb and excrete
genitourinary system
reproductive and urinary organs; also called urogenital system. GU or UG. the urinary organs are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. the reproductive organs are the gonads and various exterior genitalia and internal organs
cell membrane
a thin layer of tissue, serving as the wall of a cell. selectively allows substances to pass in and out of the cell. refuses passage to others.
cranial cavity
space enclosed by skull bones; containing the brain.
peritoneal cavity
the space containing the stomach, liver, intestines, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder
coronal plane
also called the frontal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back)
transverse plane
a plane that divides the body into superior and interior (top and bottom)
metabolism
sum of body physical and chemical processes that convert food into elements for body growth, energy, and repair.
tissue
a group of similarly specialized cells that together perform certain functions
system
a set of body organs that work together for a common purpose
CBC
abbreviation for complete blood count
CHF
abbreviation for congestive heart failure
Cl
chloride
CO2
carbon dioxide
CP
cerebral palsy
CS
abbreviation for central supply
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
CVD
cardiovascular disease
CCU
coronary care unit
cm
centimeter
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
C-Section
cesarean section
CNS
central nervous system
c/o
complains of
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What are the 3 major regions of a cell?
nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane
diffusion
the movement of a substance from an area of its higher concentration to an area of its lower concentration
filtration
the movement of substances through a membrane from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure.
passive transport
process by either diffusion or filtration
active transport
uses ATP (energy) provided by the cell
endocytosis
process in which particles are taken up by enclosure in a plasma membrane sac, includes phagocytosis
osmotic pressure
determines whether cells gain or lose water
hypertonic solution
a solution that contains more solutes than do cells. in these solutions cells lose water by osmosis and crenate.
hypotonic solution
a solution that contains fewer solutes than do cells. in these solutions, cells swell and may ruture as water rushes in by osmosis.
isotonic solution
solutions that have the same solute to solvent ratio as cells. cause no change in cell size or shape.
mitosis
begins after DNA has been replicated; it consists of four stages: prophase, mataphase, anaphase, and telophase. the result is two daughter nuclei, each identical to the mother nucleus
EPITHELIUM
is the covering, lining, and glandular tissue. Its functions include protection, absorbtion, and secretion. Epithelia are named according to arrangement (simple, stratified) and cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
connective tissue
is the supportive, protective, and binding tissue. it is characterized by the presence of a nonliving, extracellular matrix produced and secreted by the cells; it varies in amount and consistency. fat, ligaments, and tendons, bones and cartilage are all connective tissues
nervous tissue
is composed of cells called neurons, which are highly specialized to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells. neurons are important in control of body processes. nervous tissue is lovated in nervous system structures- brain spinal cord and nerves
muscle tissue
is specialized to contract, or shorten which causes movement. there are 3 types: skeletal (attached to the skeleton), cardiac (forms the heart), and smooth (in the walls of hollow organs)
tissue repair
wound healing. may involve regeneration, fibrosis, or both. in regerneration the injured tissue is replaced by the same type of cells. in fibrosis, the wound is repaired with scar tissue. Epithelia and connective tissues regenerate well. mature cardiac muscle and nervous tisse are repaired by fibrosis.
endoplasmic reticulum
may be smooth or rough
osmosis
is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane when some of the solutes cannot cross the membrane
dialysis
involves the movement of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane by process of diffusion
active transport process
is the uphill movement of a substance through a living cell membrane
simple squamous epithelial
located in the alveoli of the lungs it functions by absorbtion by diffusion of respiratory gases b/w alveolar air and blood. also found in lining of blood and lyphatic vessels functions by absorbtion by filtration, osmosis, and diffusion
stratified squamous epithelial
is lovated on the surface of lining mouth and esophagus also the surface of skin it is protection
simple columnar epithelial
found on surface of layer of lining of stomach, intestines, and parts of resp. tract. functions by protection, secretion, and absorbtion
stratified transitional epithelial
found in urinary bladder. protects
pseudostratified epithelial
found in surface of lining of trachea protects.
simple cuboidal epithelial
found in glands; kidney tubules. secretion and absorption
areolar connective
b/w other tissues and organs. functions as connection
adipose connective tissue
under skin. protection and insulation
dense fibrous
tendons, ligaments, fascia, and scar tissue. flexible but strong connection
bone connective tissue
skeleton. support and protection
cartilage connective tissue
found in part of the nasal septum, larynx, rings of trachea and bronchi, disks b/w vertebrae and external ear. firm but flexible support
blood connective tissue
found in blood vessels. transportation
hemopoietic tissue
found in red bone marrow. blood cell formation
skeletal muscle
muscles that attach to bones, eyeballs and upper third of the esophagus. functions to move bones
cardiac muscle
found in wall of the heart, functions for the heart to contract
smooth (non striated involuntary or visceral)
found in walls of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tract walls of blood and large lymphatic vessels, ducts of glands, intrinsic eye muscles, and arrector muscles of hair. functions to move substances along ducts; change in diameter of pupils and shape of lens
nerve cells
found in brain and spinal cord functions: irritability and conduction