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Physics 63 Final
Terms in this set (53)
• study of objects in motion and objects at rest
• ability to do work
• kinetic energy of the random motion of molecules
• positively charged
• in the nucleus
• called the atomic number (Z)
• in the nucleus
• aka: nucleons
• no charge
• about the same size at proton
• outside of the nucleus
• negatively charged
• 1/2000 the mass of the proton
Define: Electron shells
• binding energies or energy levels of electrons are represented by their shells
- inner shells = higher energy
- outer shells = lower energy
Which electron shell has the highest binding energy?
• number of cycles per unit of time
e* of the rise and fall
Photons with the highest frequencies have the _____ wavelengths and ______ energies.
• total distance a wave moves in time period
velocity is Constant
- 3x10^8 m/s
What is the formula for Velocity?
• Velocity = frequency x wavelength
• distance traveled by a wave
• the smallest unit of electric charge
• the measurement of the potential difference of electricity
• measurement of Electric Power
• the amount of work that a circuit can do
Does a step up transformer have more turns on the first or second coil?
• the transformer law is directly proportional to the # of turns in the primary coil to the # of turns in the secondary coil
Faraday's 1st Law
• an electric current is induced to flow in a circuit if some part of that circuit is in a changing magnetic field
• based on the principle of "electromagnetic induction" discovered by Faraday
• The mechanical energy of the moving wire is converted into the electric energy of the current that flows in the wire
Line Voltage Compensator
• compensates the incoming voltage so that a constant voltage may be used during exposure and not a varying voltage
- consistent voltage for the entire period of time
t* component to receive power in the x-ray ciruit
• adjust current to cathode filament to produce the heat required for thermionic emission of -e
• controls the # of x-rays
• converts HV (high volts) AC to pulsed DC for the X-ray tube
• achieved with the use of diodes
• Current flows through the X-ray tube during the positive part of the cycle = only half of the output is being used > which is the
High Frequency Generators
• 500 pulses/second
• the most efficient of all x-ray generators
voltage across the tube is most constant
• 1% voltage ripple
Full Wave Rectification
• converts the negative half of the AC wave form into positive wave form that can be used in x-ray production
• controls # of x-rays
• current 3-5 amps for thermionic emission
High Voltage Generator
• converts the low voltage supplied from the power company into high kV required to produce x-rays and high Amperage to the mA needed to produce current to the filament
High Voltage Transformer
• increases voltage 500-1000 times
What made it possible to have a 90 sec. processor?
• Polyester film base
What controls emulsion swelling/hardening?
• prevents excessive swelling of the gelatin and damage to the film as it passes through the rollers
- with out it = film wet, damp, sticky
Where does the removal of undeveloped silver happen?
• 2nd tank
What chemical turns film brown if not properly washed?
• Ammonium Thiosulfate Retention
• support for phosphors
• made of polyester
Which agent could be depleted if the film comes out wet?
Which layer of the screen is closest to the film?
• Protective coating
Which layer of the screen improves light emitting efficiency?
• Reflective layer
What type of material emits light after a period of time after stimulation
What is it called when a screen emits light after exposure
• screen lag
T/F the use of screens great improves the tube life?
What is a wire mesh test for
• warped screens
• warped fronts
• integrity of felt contacts
Does high or low kVp result in more scatter?
Which type of x-ray interaction contributes to the clear parts of the image?
• photoelectric interactions
T/F Compton scatter contributes to the useful information?
Does scatter increase or decrease as field size increases?
What can we do to improve contrast resolution
• decrease kVp
if you lower kVp what happens to the patient does and contrast, if you compensate with an increase in mAs
• patent dose - increases
• contrast - increases
T/F the use of collimation improves contrast and reduces patient dose
The use of beam restrictors devices only accurate at a fixed SID
• aperture diaphragm
What could be defined as the degree of difference in optical density between areas of an image
Does image contrast improve as scatter radiation is removed
The amount of scatter absorbed
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