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Terms in this set (54)
Idealism---teacher is vital agent in helping students realize fullest potential
-schools expose students to great people/great works of the past
-draws out latent knowledge through socratic questioning
-teacher/school should provide structured curriculum of increasingly complex and sophisticated content
• the teacher must be deeply knowledgeable in a
content area and be skilled in the art of
• the teacher's duty is to teach some skill
competency, not to be a therapeutic agent
• the primary purpose of school is to provide
knowledge of the objective world and test
students to determine if they know it
• the teacher opposes nonacademic activities that
interfere with the primary purpose of schooling
-teachers believe that learners do not passively receive and store information, but actively create meaning from their own constructions of reality
• teachers encourage students to discover principles by themselves
• learners interact with sensory data and continually construct and reconstruct their own world
• construction of new knowledge is located in the social interactions in which it is acquired
• the teacher serves as poser of problems, a facilitator, one who helps scaffold learning
naturalism---teacher should view the child as naturally unspoiled or intrinsically good
-learning should actively involve the child with the environment, using his/her own problems
-education should be based upon readiness of the child
-teacher should be in tune with nature, be patient
-teacher is guide to learning, manipulator of environment
-no set schedule of when child should be ready
-left in the hands of man creates MONSTERS
-instincts should be valued
-stresses child's past experience which needs to be understood
• promotes democracy
• subjects are taught through problem-solving activities and the scientific method
• does not dominate the learner, but guides learning to provide the structure and order a child needs
• interested in personal, social, intellectual problems
• the teacher's purpose is to help students solve societal problems
• works to transform classrooms into learning communities
• foster bold educational experiments like Outward Bound
teacher as "one who stresses choice"JEAN PAUL SARTRE, after ww1 and ww2 existentialism ---stresses CHOICE, recognizes other's personal meaning and reality -recognizes other's personal meaning and reality -helps students to transcend their facticity -understand responsibility to make choices and create reality -student is responsible for their education and make choicesteacher as "change agent", "activist", "transformational leader"PAULO FRIERE social reconstructivism -person not merely in the world, but of the world, with others in the world -teacher must be willing to engage in ongoing renewal of professional life -teacher open to diversity and tolerant of change -education has been controlled by powerful people -addresses problems in society -social problems and student involvementteacher as "authority figure"MORITMER ADLER: Perennialism, non-Catholic Thomismcritical theoryIVAN ILLICH -teaches students to develop critical analysis of class conflicts and social strains • teachers should have the power to design and conduct instruction. • they reject the mechanisms that give legislators and administrators all the power • they reject standardized testing, teacher competency tests, top-down administrator-controlled schools • they emphasize learning that is rooted in the students' own autobiographies and community experiences -free online courses, high stakes assessments -contaminated by racism, sexism, imperialism -more intense than social reconstructivismmacrocosm/microcosmmacrocosm: the first cause, the absolute, the universal mind microcosm: humans are a small part of this universal mindAllegory of the Cave-prisoners mistake appearance for reality -"we would be mistaken if we thought that the concepts that we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive"Choice as an act of value creation-the individual who is free and who knows it-- knows that every word and deed is a choice, knows that choice is an act of value creation (existentialism)"fundamental human goods"THOMISM; good is to be done, evil to be avoided, never right to act against a fundamental human good -life -health -procreation -rearing of young -relationships -friendshipTo Aquinas, God is..."principle cause"To Aquinas, we are"instrumental cause"/"moral exemplar"Empirical Knowledge-The way to acquire knowledge about reality is through systematic inquiry -Father is John LockeNature as good and unspoiledNaturalismcontract theory of governmentstate existed to protect private propertyNeo-ThomismRELIGIOUS PERENNIALISM : the application of Thomas Aquinas' thought to distinctively modern conditions and problemsKnowledge influenced by prior experiencespragmatism, DEWEY; values are constructed from experience and are tentative, evolving, and changingNew Social Order-what is real is the need for the creation of a new social order • we need harmony with the underlying social and economic forces of the modern world • what is real is the need for social reform (Freire, Social Reconstructivism)"you have but one teacher, Christ, so call nobody on earth your teacher"THOMISM; God is principle cause, humans are instrumental causeslatent knowledgedrawn out through socratic questioning (idealism), knowledge hidden in past experiencesempirical knowledgebased on experience and observations that are rational, testable, and repeatableReality is politically, socially, and economically constructedsocial reconstructivism?Existence precedes essenceSartre-existentialism, we are first born, then we can become who we areHidden curriculum used to reinforce corporate valuesCritical TheoristsFreedom and Responsibility-The freedom to choose carries tremendous burdens of responsibility (existentialism), responsibility to make CHOICESgreat books as teachers of truthPerennialism---Mortimer Adler, values found in Great books, culture, classics, christian doctrinepolitical correctness weakens core valuesPerennialism---core curriculum should be provided for all studentsno frills educationessentialism: sound academic standards, It means no sports, no extracurriculars, no student gym, limited student services, and the likes, just schoola nation at risk1983 National Commission report calling for extensive educational reforms, including more academic course requirements, more stringent college entrance requirements, upgraded and updated textbooks, and longer school days and year???---essentialismessentialismdrill practices, modern day, Nation @ Risk, assessments, kids don't know what they need to know, standards developedwho is associated with thomism?aquinaswho is associated with idealism?Plato, Socrateswho is associated with realism?Aristotlewho is associated with naturalism?Rousseau, John Lockewho is associated with constructivism?Piaget, Vygotskywho is associated with pragmatism?John Deweywho is associated with existentialism?Jean Paul Sartrewho is associated with social reconstructivism?Paulo Frierewho is associated with critical theory?Ivan Illich, Henry Girouxwhat is aesthetics?the study of beautywhat is inductive logic?"a type of reasoning in which general principles are inferred from specific experiences." For example, adding a toy to a set of toys makes it one more. Then inferring that adding always makes more.what is cosmology?study of the universeIn Thomism, is the teacher a critical agent or facilitator?critical agentIn Naturalism, is the teacher a critical agent or facilitator?facilitatorIn Social Reconstructivism, is the teacher a critical agent or facilitator?critical agentIn Realism, is the teacher a critical agent or facilitator?critical agent