Cosmetology State Board Prep (Chemical Services)
Chemical Services including Color and Perming
What type of hair takes the least amount of time to process during a perm?
During a perm, what can happen to the hair if the rubberband is stretched and turned?
Perming breaks down what type of bonds?
What action does neutralizer have on the hair?
It rehardens, reforms and reshapes
A client comes in after recieving a perm. The hair is curly when wet, but not when it is dry. What do you do?
What do you do to resistant grey hair prior to color?
On a retouch, what happens if you apply color past the regrowth?
It may casue discoloration and even breakage
When peroxide is added to an alkaline color mixure, what takes place?
What is a Color Filler?
It is used to mask missing color and even out porosity
What determines the processing time in a permanet wave?
What should you do if a customer comes back and complains that a perm is too tight?
Apply waving lotion to relax hair
What are Sulfur Bonds?
Chemicals that are very strong and can only be broken by chemicals
How far from the scalp should you apply a relaxer for a virgin application?
What size rods are used for a body wave?
What should you do if an alkaline perm is on the hair for ten minutes and nothing has happened?
What is the pH of an alkaline perm?
8.2 to 9.6
When peroxide is added to an alkaline color mixture, what happens?
Oxygen is given off
What is the pH of a sodium hydroxide?
When do you use a neutralizing shampoo?
After a relaxer
What two chemicals are used in permanent waving?
Waving lotion and neutralizer
How are acid waves activated?
When using on base rollers in wrapping a perm, you will achieve?
Volume or Height
What stops the action of a relaxer?
Warm water rinsing
What kind of perm would you give to reduce the curl pattern and make it more manageable for overly curly hair?
Soft curl Perm
What should a practitioner always do before applying sodium hydroxide relaxers?
Analyze the hair and scalp
When is the processing stopped for a chemical relaxer?
Thio gel is used to presoften what kind of hair?
What do you use to make a warm color?
Red, Orange, Yellow
How do you remove green from blonde or white hair ?
If a client had dark hair and wants to go light, what whould she do?
If you have a weak, limp curl after perming the hair, it was caused by:
The pH of an alkaline perm lotion should not exceed
The benefit of an acid balanced perm is
It has a lower pH so it is less harsh
What bonds are broken and rearranged during a permanent wave?
For the most commonly used perm wrap, how do you determine how to section the hair?
By the lenght of the rod
What is the first thing to consider when allowing for processing time for a permanent waving?
What is the first lotion used in a perm?
What is the chemical formual for water?
What is the physical part of the perm?
The wrapping of the hair on the rods
How can you activate formaldehyde gas?
By adding formalin to borax
What is the action of the waving lotion on the hair?
It softens, swells, and shapes the hair
What determines the processing time of a cold wave?
The porostiy of the hair
What is a preposition/path test?
It is used to determine if the patron is allergic to a give haircolor product
What does pH stand for?
Describe the pH scale
0-7 (Acid), 7-14 (Alkaline), 7 Neutral (Water)
What volume hydrogen peroxide is used for tinting and bleaching?
Why do we use end papers in permanent waving?
To assure the ends of the hair are wound securely around rod without fishhooks
What formation does the curl take when you remove a perm?
A prominent letter "S"
What are the different types of color used in the salon?
Temporary, Semi-Permanent, and Permanent
How many types of hair straighteners are there?
Two, Ammonium Thiogylcolate, and Sodium Hydroxide
Why is a cold wave called a cold wave?
It is a perm that employs no heat
What is the importance of chemistry in the beauty of salons?
We must understand the various chemicals and cosmetics being used in the salon
What do you do before a tint?
A patch test, predisposition test
Hydrogen Peroxide is commonly mixed with?
An Anline Derivative Tint
What are the negative side effects of a sodium hydroxide relaxer?
Permanent scalp damage, hair breakage, loss, burns
The optimum pH level for Henna is?
A perm activated by heat created chemically within the product is?
The hydrogen in an acid is replaced by a metal, the result is?
Do you give a patch test to a bleach-out?
What amount of product do you use for a patch test?
1/2 TSPN of color, 1/2 TSP of hydrogen peroxide.
What is the pH of temporary hair color?
What is strong, Ammonium Thiglycolate or Sodium Hydroxide?
One method of wrapping a permanent wave with long hair is?
The piggy back method
An analine derivative tint is?
A penetrating hair tint
What type of changes occur when ice melts and becomes water?
When using a chemical such as sodium hydroxide and neutralizing agents, it is important to take care in protecting the scalp from injury with?
What should the pH of an alkaline perm not exceed?
A soap solution with a pH of 10 would be considered
What are the two bonds that reform the hair for a temporary change?
hydrogen and sulfur
If your hair is lighter and you want to go darker, where do you first apply?
From base to ends
How do you neutralize a yellow tint from gray hair?
Using a bluing rinse
When you mix and aniline derivative tint with hydrogen peroxide, what action occurs?
Where do you perform a patch test for color?
On the inner fold of the elbow
If a person had permanent color applied to hair for 12 months and now wants to be a much lighter color, you should apply
A tint remover
What is the strongest and fastest bleach to apply?
An aniline derivative tint is what type of tint?
Penetrating, oxidative, single process, one-step process
What type of lightener is easiest to use?
What is the purpose of a strand test?
To determine correct color formulation, timing, even or uneven color results
What should you do to go from a dark brown to a very pale yellow blonde?
Prelighten or decolorize first (double process)
What is the last stage of decolorizing?
What are the advantages of an acid perm?
When should you not relax the hair with sodium hydroxide?
Previously treated with thio relaxer or metallic tints
What do you do to the hair not wrapped in a partial perm?
Use protective cream
What do you do when you spill perm solution on a clients skin?
Rinse with cool water
What type of color should be used in a permanent tint service if a client wants to reduce "brassy orange" tones?
Blue based color
An acid rinse is used after a permanent color service to help seal in the color by
Closing the cuticle of the hair
When testing for metallic salts, what happens to the hair if copper is present?
Balls up and Desinigrates
What is the easiest way to touch up bleach without overlapping?
When doing a perm service, how do you keep from putting additional tension on the hair?
Wrap rods slightly off base
What happens in the first stage of a perm?
Breaking of the disulfide bonds
If a brunette wants to avoid brassiness, how many levels should their hair be lifted?
What does hair level mean?
Lightness and darkness of hair
If a virgin level 5 went to a level 9, what do you do?
What do you do to get a virgin black hair to a pale yellow?
When perming hair, what determines the process time?
When perming hair, what chemical determines processing time?
The type of solution
What type of rinse is put on gray hair?
If a client has never had a color before and wants to go dark, where do you start?
Back and/or resistant areas
Do NOT perform a chemical service if this is apparent:
Why would a stylist use foils?
Precise placement of color
What are the two actions of a chemical relaxer?
Removes one atom of sulfur and converts it to lanthionine
After rinsing perm solution from the hair, what is the next step?
what should you apply to the hairline and the ears when using a no base relaxer?
What should you relax when doing a re-touch relaxer?
New growth only
What kind of perm is for tinted hair?
What technique do you never do before lightening hair?
What causes under processing?
Insufficient processing time
What are the 3 steps in a perm service?
Processing, rinse, neutralizing
If your client has black hair and wants to go pale yellow, how many levels do you need to lift it?
What is the highest level of hydrogen peroxide you can use safely as an antiseptic?
Peroxide is composed of Hydrogen and what?
Ammonium Thioglycolate is in bot h relaxer and
What size rods would you use in a soft curl perm
Two sizes larger than the natural curl
How do you stop the action of relaxers?
Rinse with warm water
How long does a semi-permanent color last?
4-6 Weeks (4-6 Shampoos)
How do you determine rod size?
Based on desired curl
How do you prepare Fumigant?
By the manufacturers instructions, 1 tablespoon of borax and 1 tablespoon of formalin
What does a humectant conditioner do?
The key chemical in permanent tints is?
What is double process for?
To lighten hair then deposit color
What are the two actions of chemical relaxers?
Soften and swell
What type of rinse prevents fading of color after a tint or toner?
What type of hair requires a shorter processing time
When doing a virgin application in hair lightening you stay _____ away from the scalp and take ________ subsections
1/2 inches and 1/8 inch
How do you check for metallic dyes?
1:20 test, 20 volume H202 and 20 drops of 28% ammonia water. Immerse hair for 30 minutes
What does quats stand for?
Quaternary ammonium compound
How do you mix quats?
When doing a relaxer and the hair is damaged, what should you use prior to fix the porosity?
How long does temporary hair color last?
What are the three steps to a relaxer?
Relaxer, Neutralize, Condition
What type of curl does a concave roller give?
Tighter curl at hair ends
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