History Lightbody Notes
Terms in this set (18)
- In 1967 the PRC perfected the H bomb
- There was nuclear diplomacy which started in 1969, was officially integrated into policy by Nixon in 1972
- President Kennedy's speech to an American uni in June 196, Kennedy awknowledged the sufferings and losses of the Soviet Union in WW2 and hailed soviet success in science and industry and stated in a link to PC "our most basic common link is that we both inhabit that small planet"
- In October 1964 Khrushchev was replaced by Brezhnev. President Johnson met the Soviet Premier Kosygin in New Jersey (July 1967), but differences over the Vietnam war and Soviet invasion of Czechslovakia (1968)
- There was the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty of 1968 which restricted nuclear tech to the US, USSR, China, France and GB
- Richard Nixon won his presidential credentials in November 1968, at his Jan 1959 inaugration he remarked that the greatest honour that history can bestow "is the title peacemaker"
- The soviet ambassador, Dobrynin was invited to the White House on the 17th Feb 1969 and thereafter attended regular meetings at the white house - (back channel)
-The Nixon Doctrine essentially endorsed peaceful coexistence as the basis of superpower relations and abandoned the Truman Doctrine with its open-ended commitment to defend freedom around the world
Detente 3/ china
- Nixon's conversion to detente was also a recognition that the US no longer had nuclear superiority
- It was estimated that since 1962 the SU had quadrupled its ICMB force
- The perception of the SU changed due to the boarder fighting along the Ussuri River in March 1969, the SU had 25 divisions along the sino-soviet division compared to only 12 divisions on the Europe boarder
- in sep 1969 Nixon used the "china card" by criticising the SU for its provocative build up of troops on the boarder
- The Nixon Doctrine returned the world to the familiar politics of "national interest" and ended the sterile trench warfare of ideological opposision
- The Cold War became grey
- There was the diplomatic recognition of the PRC by the USA after decades of bitter animosity
- in 1969 there was the easing of trade and travel restrictions with the PRC and this was followed by a ping-pong match in April 1971
- In July 1971 Kissinger embarked on Operation Polo and flew secretly to Beijing to explore rapprochement
- There was also the PRCs admittance to the United Nations in October 1971 over the Nationalist govt in Taiwan
- On the 17th Feb 1972, Nixon flew to Beijing and was received at the airport by PM Zhou Enlai and shook hands with the premier in a piece of political theatre
- the summit ended with the Shanghai Communique included a joint declaration that neither side wished hegemony over the Pacific union
- Realpolitik on both sides had replaced the ideological straightjackets that had governed relations in the 1950s
-The SU was concerned by a mounting ideological and military challenge from the PRC
- The PRC condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in Aug 1968 and the Brezhnev Doctrine in November 1968 as examples of Soviet imperialism
Who won the Cold War 1
- The core of the cold war dispute was a struglle between totalitarianism and democracy, and democracy won
- It was the internal battle for democracy from 1988 to 1991 that had finally destroyed the Soviet Union
- The SU did not surrender to the US from 1985 to 1988 but established a strict military equality and sought partnership for the future
- In Dec 1988 Gorbachev made a speech to the Un renouncing the Brezhnev Doctrine and suggested in the Moscow Summit of 1988 that the "evil empire" was gone
Who won the Cold War 2
- The end of the cold war coincided with Reagan's military challenge to the SU and this has promoted the theory won the cold war
- This claim is undermined by the fact the Yuri Andropov absorbed Reagan's challenge between 1982 to 1984 and refused to make any concessions in the arms race
- Also Reagan in an open labs policy promised to share SDI tech in an "open labs" policy which contradicts the theory of a plan to force the SU into overspend
- The SU was in a crises before Reagan became President and it was in response to this internal crises that Gorbachev acted to end the Cold War
- President Bush confirmed that the USA stayed on the sidelines during 1988-1991, the US strategy was to avoid being overly triumphant and to support Gorbachev to ward off a hard-line military dictatorship
Who won the Cold War 3
- President Truman on the 15th January 1953 had a forecast of events: " As the world grows stronger, more united, more attractive to men on both sides of the Iron Curtain and the Soviet plans for expansion are blocked (...) Whether the communist rulers shift their policies of their own free will - or whether the changes come about in some other way - I have not a doubt in the world that a change will occur"
Reagan Perspective 1
- Reagan unleashed a verbal and military challenge to the USSR from 1981 to 1985
- He became President in November 1980
- The US economy was in depression with interest rates, unemployment at all record highs
- There was also the defeat of Vietnam and the faliure in April 1980 to free 52 Americans held hostage in the US embassy in Iran
- on the 29th Jan 1981, President Reagan defined the communist philosophy as the "right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat"
- In March 1982 he predicted that Marxism would be left on "the ashheap of history"
- There was a 53% increase in US defence spending in October 1981
- The US Navy was also increased to 600 ships
Reagan Perpective 2
- Reagan suggested the INF talks and START talks however, these were rejected by Brezhnev
- To critics the US proposals were designed for public consumption to deflect criticism away from the arms build-up and were calculated for Soviet rejection. To supporters, the military challenge was essential to restore the military balance and was a deliberate Reagan policy to outstretch the Soviet economy
- The Secretary of State Casper Weinberger lead the "squeezers"
- There was also the commitment to the SDI policy in 1983
- Brezhnev died on the 11th Noc 1982
- Yuri Andropov was elected
Reagan Perpective 3
- Andropov went on a peace offensive and capitalised on the widespread peace protests of the time
- In June 1982 over 700,000 people crammed into central park, New York to demand a nuclear freeze
- The Pentagon released a paper that contained a strategy for winning a protracted nuclear war and Reagan openly reffered to the prospect of fighting a limited war in Europe
- On the 8th March 1983 Reagan described the SU as the "focus of all evil in the modern world"
- On the 23rd March he announced SDI - however, there was no scientific breakthrough and SDI was more science fiction that science fact
Reagan Perspective 4
- On Oct 1983 Reagan had a triumph over communism with the military victory when US marines stormed ashore in Grenada ostensibly to protect American medical students caught up in a coup, but in practice to prevent the formation of a new Marxist govt
- In Jan 1984 Reagan started to soften his rhetoric as it was election year
- In 1985 the reformist Gorbachev was elected as General Secretary of the CPSU
- Glasnost ended the Cold war by allowing the rejection of the Soviet imperitive to compete with the West. However, by exposing the reality of life in the SU, it also triggered the collapse of the SU
- Gorbachev stated in 1985 that the SU was "ripe for change"
- Gorbachev declared the rise of "new political thinking.. particularly in the field of disarmament"
- In 1987 Gorbachev announced Perestroika
- There was the first summit between Reagan and Gorbachev in Nov 1985 and was a media-friendly "fire side" chat
- there was a desire on both sides for a nuclear free world but sharp disagreement on SDI
Gorbachev perspective 2
- Gorbachev also rejected in March 1986 when Reagan breached SALT II limitations by arming B52 bombers with air-launched cruise missiles
- There was the Reykjavik Summit in Iceland in Oct 1986, Gorbachev announced a comprehensive disarmament concessions but conditional upon the abandonment of SDI
- There was the Washington Summit on the 8th Dec 1987 where the INF treaty was signed otherwise known as the Zero Option. An entire class of weapons was abolished as Soviet SS20s and the US cruise and Pershing missiles were removed from Europe
- There was their final summit in Moscow May 1988, Reagan tested glasnost by speaking to ordianry Russians in the Red Sqaure and wished the students of the Moscow Uni "a new world of reconciliation, friendship and peace"
- Gorbachev addressed the UN in 1988 where he recinded the Brezhnev Doctrine and cosinged the Bolshevik Revolution as no longer relevant to modern history
Gorbachev Perspective 3
- In Sep 1989 Gorbachev removed his objection of SDI
- Congress had downgraded SDI funding and prohibited any tests in space
- Gorbachev's commitment to peace was recognised in June 1990 with the Nobel Peace Prize and Time magazine announced him as "man of the year"
- In July 1991 Bush and Gorbachev signed the START treaty and this agreement cut strategic missiles by 50% to a new joint level of 6000 warheads and 1600 strategic launchers
- On the 27th Sep Bush as the commander in chief of the air force "stood down" the 24hr strategic alert status of the USAF - USSR was no longer a military threat
Gorbachev perspective 4
- Gorbachev also acted quickly to end fears of Soviet Expansionism by withdrawing troops from Afghanistan in April 1988
- Gorbachev had hoped that perestroika would renew the Soviet economy and also to the fact that the heavy costs of the arms race had been removed
- After the 1986 party congress there was an upbeat prediction "the economic capacity of the SU is to increase by 100% by the year 2000"
Gorbachev Perspective 5
- Gorbachev believed that the democratic reform of the party would restore public confidence, but East Europe switched control from top to bottom
- Glasnost had offered Eastern Europe "the right of every nation to choose its own path"
- In April 1989 Gorbachev informed communist leaders that they would have to govern without Soviet supervision
- The first test of freedom was in Hungary in May 1989 when boarder controls were ended
- In June 1989 Poland elected a democratic Solidarity govt and in swift succession the communist governments of Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, East Germany and Romania all collapsed
- By the 12th Dec 1990 the four powers of Germany agreed to the reunification of Germany, Glasnost had permitted free choice and the choice was democracy
Gorbachev perspective 6
- Bush was criticised for his poor policies
- The polish Solidarity Adam Michnik more vividly accused him of "sleepwalking through history"
- In June 1991 a public poll showed that Gorbachev's approval rating was only 10% - a decline from 59% from 1989 (because of his sharply right and left policies due to the G7 refusing financial support to assist the reconstructing of the Soviet Union
- on the 1st Dec 1991 the Ukrainian people voted for independence in a referendum, Glasnost permitted people to speak and the people had spoken
- The lowering of the hammer and sickle and the raising of the Russian Flag above the Kremlin was the only mark of the passing of communism
- Glasnost exploded the myths of Cold war confrontation and the "triumphs" of communism and more in sorrow than anger, the USSR imploded
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