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Unit 2, Part 1: Memory
Terms in this set (58)
the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
the processing of information into the memory system
the process of retaining encoded information over time
a statistical procedure that indentifies clusters of related test items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
the process of getting information out of the memory system
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before it is forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focueses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consiously know and "declare"
encoding that requires attention and concious effort
unconcious encoding of incidental information, such as space
retention independent of conscious recollection
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of second
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
memory aids, especially those tehcniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
the tendecy for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information
encoding on a basic level based on the structure of appearance of words
encoding semantically based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield thebest retention;
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
a measure of a memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations with memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last (recency) and first (primacy) in a list.
an inability to form new memories
an inability to retrieve information from one's past
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
attributing to the wrong source an event we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. At the heart of many false memories.
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsiously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over. This facilitates deep processing.
Long-term memory retrieval is best when a person's physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval of the information is the same (e.g., drug state, level of physiological arousal, etc.)
Remembering to do things in the future
Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
the pattern of storage decay described by Ebbinghaus; retention of information drops off quickly, then stabilizes, as time passes after learning
Found that short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (+/- 2) items.
the first person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well
mental pictures; can be used to aid effortful processing and often incorporated into mnemonics
type of mnemonic that exploits the ease with which we recall layouts of familiar locations; remembering items on a list by visualizing them placed in familiar locations
"Thinking about thinking," or one's awareness of one's own thought processes or memory.
tendency to forget what was said by the person immediately before you during introductions or saying words
associating an idea with a visual peg word that rhymes with its position on the list; (ex. one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree...I want to remember to buy carrots at the store, so I image a carrot-flavored bun.)
A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
The encoding of picture images
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
An item on a list that's memorable because its not like the other items on the list
A model for describing memory in which there are three distinguishable kinds of memory storage (sensory, short term, long term) through which info passes in a sequential way as it is processed.
Continued rehearsal of material after one first appears to have mastered it. Improves memory.
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
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