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Lecture 3: Threats from Outer-space
Terms in this set (34)
How did the first minerals appear in the universe e.g granite, diamond?
After the explosion of a supernova
Out of these which ones are correct?
The lifespan of stars is inversely proportional to its size
The explosion of stars allow the formation of other stellar systems
Stars cluster by the hundreds of billions within galaxies
All of the above
Why is the solar system not a binary star system?
There was not enough hydrogen in Jupiter, to ignite nuclear fusion
What is the most abundant chemical element in the universe?
What are the four terrestrial planets in the solar system, by ascending distance from the sun?
How did the solar system form?
First, a cloud of gas(nebula) begins to contract
Second, as a result of this contraction, a totaing disk forms with matter from the center, forming the PROTOSUN
Thirdly, enveloping disk of gas and dust forms grains that collide and clump together form into PLANETESIMALS
FOURTH, due to gravitation attraction terrestrial planets are formed by multiple collisions and accretion of planetesimals. And Giant(outer)plantes gre by gas accretion
Fifth, More Planetary accretion occurred through further collisions
Thus the Solar System formed 4.56 +/- Gyr ago
Why are Chondrites important?
Representative of the material in the solar nebula(b4 the sun and the surrounding planets. 85% of meteorites )
Why are achondrite meteroites important?
Representative of the composition of terrestrial planets
What is Planetary differentiation ?
Process of separating out different constituents of planetary bodies becuz of their density and chemistry, it develops into compositionally distinct concentric layers.
What does Planetary differentiation say and what does it create?
1. Denser materials sink to the surface, generally the magma ocean.
2. Gravitational potential is converted to heat
3. Accretionary heat: planetary interiors are warmer than their surface
Creates a core and mantle
What are the most abundant dense elements on earth and where are they found?
Fe and Ni and in the earth's core
What are the most abundant lighter elements on earth and where are they found?
Hydrogen ,Aluminum, and oxygen and more, found inthe earth's crust
To be a Mineral it must:
Naturally occurring, inorganic, solid material, with well-defined chemical composition.
What two characteristics allow the study of minerals
Crystal Structure and Composition
Due to their abundance what two elements love to form with another and are the basis for most common rock forming minerals(silicates)
Silicon and Oxygen
What are other forms of mineral groups
CArbonates, Phosphates, and Sulfides
The Silicate compound is built of?
How does the silicate anion join together?
by sharing their oxygen atoms to form chains, sheets and polymers
How do we know the earth's inner composition?
Magnetic field (metallic core)
Gravitational effects and spin (the total mass and the angular momentum)
Seismic waves (layer interfaces)
Volcanos (e.g., Kimberlite)
Meteorites (composition, relative abundance of elements)
Silicate minerals are the building blocks of
the crust and mantle
How did the earth's outermost fluid layers form?
The Earth's oceans and
following differentiation. (primary atmosphere lost to outer space)
Gas and water on Earth came
from 'degassing' of the crust
and mantle during cooling: secondary atmosphere. An addition of comets added water as well
Tertiary atmosphere formed biological proceses that enriched it in Oxygen
What is the ecliptic concept?
All planets rotate around the sun in the same orbital plane in the same anti-clockwise direction.(viewed fromthe N. pole)
How is the ecliptic explained?
By the flattening of the solar nebula (theory)
What invalidates the solar nebula theory?
1. Uranus strange inclination- spins parallel to the ecliptic
2. Backward Spin of Venus-rotates clockwise extremely slow(in retrograde rotation once every 243 Earth days)
3.Triton orbits Neptune in retrograde orbit
What are the three hyphotheses that were formed to explain why the Moon is the largest of the solar system, relative to its parent planet?
1. Gravitational Capture-he Moon formed separately, smaller planetesimal; it passed close enough to Earth to stay in its orbit(difficult to occur)
2.Co-Accretion- Moon formed simultaneously, much like -planets around the sun (possible but doesnt explain the inclination of earth)
3. Fission Hypothesis(Charles Darwin)-Moon is ejected material from a fast spinning earth (earth would have rotated tooooo quickly)
How was the moon formed? and after what event did we find this out?
Their-earth Impact which states that a mars size body impacted the earth whichi propeeled debris from boht bodies into space. from this the earth's rotation sped up and and titled it. Earth later reformed as a molten body and the moon aggregated from the debris.
Apollo program since they brought back ancient moon rocks
are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers
What characteristics do all isotopes of the same element have?
Same number of protons, chemical properties, but different mass ,density, and number of neutrons
What causes seasons?
This impact theory because the radiance of the sun heats up the sun at different rates due to the inclination
What are rhymites and what do they give evidence of?
Is layers of sediment or sedimentary rock laid down in a repeated pattern. Give evidence of lengthening of days
Where is the asteroid belt ?
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
What is the largest asteroid?
ceres, a dwarf planet
What shares the orbit with Jupiter around the sun
Trojans FIGHT ONNNNN
What is the Kuiper Belt? Where is it located?
region outside the orbit of Neptune which contains small bodies made of ice(including dwarf planets)
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