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19 terms

H. Bio 2: Genetics

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Gregor Mendel
father of genetics; 19th century monk; argued that parents pass onto their offspring discrete heritable factors; cross-bred pea plants
gene
segment on chromosome (3 N bases)
alleles
alternate forms of the same gene
homozygous
2 identical alleles for a given trait
heterozygous
2 diff alleles for a given trait
genotype
genetic makeup; specific gene that makes up allele
law of dominance
in a pair of genes, the dominant trait is expressed; one trait is "masked" by other trait
with respect to meiosis
- each gamete contins a copy of each chromosome
- each chromosome is made up of genes
- each gene consists of an allele
- each allele in the Punnett Squares represents a gene
law of segregation
alleles from F1 separate and recombine in F2
law of independent assortment
traits can separate and recombine independently of other traits
genetics
scientific study of heredity and hereditary variations
locus
particular site on a chromosome where gene is found
codominance
equal expression of both alleles; ex: blood type
incomplete dominance
traits blend
polygenic inheritance
additive effect of 2 or more gene loci on a single phenotype; ex: height, skin color, weight
sex-linked traits
genes located on either sex chromosomes
hybrid
heterozygous individuals
pure
homozygous individuals
linked genes
genes on the same chromosome stay together during assortment and move as a group