father of genetics; 19th century monk; argued that parents pass onto their offspring discrete heritable factors; cross-bred pea plants
segment on chromosome (3 N bases)
alternate forms of the same gene
2 identical alleles for a given trait
2 diff alleles for a given trait
genetic makeup; specific gene that makes up allele
law of dominance
in a pair of genes, the dominant trait is expressed; one trait is "masked" by other trait
with respect to meiosis
- each gamete contins a copy of each chromosome
- each chromosome is made up of genes
- each gene consists of an allele
- each allele in the Punnett Squares represents a gene
law of segregation
alleles from F1 separate and recombine in F2
law of independent assortment
traits can separate and recombine independently of other traits
scientific study of heredity and hereditary variations
particular site on a chromosome where gene is found
equal expression of both alleles; ex: blood type
additive effect of 2 or more gene loci on a single phenotype; ex: height, skin color, weight
genes located on either sex chromosomes
genes on the same chromosome stay together during assortment and move as a group
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