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Gregor Mendel

father of genetics; 19th century monk; argued that parents pass onto their offspring discrete heritable factors; cross-bred pea plants


segment on chromosome (3 N bases)


alternate forms of the same gene


2 identical alleles for a given trait


2 diff alleles for a given trait


genetic makeup; specific gene that makes up allele

law of dominance

in a pair of genes, the dominant trait is expressed; one trait is "masked" by other trait

with respect to meiosis

- each gamete contins a copy of each chromosome
- each chromosome is made up of genes
- each gene consists of an allele
- each allele in the Punnett Squares represents a gene

law of segregation

alleles from F1 separate and recombine in F2

law of independent assortment

traits can separate and recombine independently of other traits


scientific study of heredity and hereditary variations


particular site on a chromosome where gene is found


equal expression of both alleles; ex: blood type

incomplete dominance

traits blend

polygenic inheritance

additive effect of 2 or more gene loci on a single phenotype; ex: height, skin color, weight

sex-linked traits

genes located on either sex chromosomes


heterozygous individuals


homozygous individuals

linked genes

genes on the same chromosome stay together during assortment and move as a group

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