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Terms in this set (70)

Fidel Castro, coming to power and facing U.S. hostility, sought resources from the USSR.
Cuban and Soviet tensions with the U.S. were high.
In April, 1962, Castro agreed to allow Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuban soil. They arrived in September.
The Soviets knew that the U.S. had already installed nuclear missiles in Turkey (in the Soviet sphere of influence).
The Soviets publicly denied they were installing missiles in Cuba.
In October, U.S. spy planes discovered the missiles in Cuba.
JFK decides to confront the Soviets and Cubans.
Three military response options were debated by the U.S. National Security Council: Air attack on the missile bases, Full military invasion of Cuba, Naval blockade of Cuba (quarantine).
JFK opted for the naval blockade for the time being, but did not rule out the possibility of an invasion.
On October 22, 1962, JFK announced the quarantine.
Khrushchev claimed it was illegal and would cause a war.
On October 24, about 19 Soviet ships were blocked as the U.S. and Soviets engaged in a furious standoff.
The crisis deepened when neither side showed any signs they would back down.
Castro was convinced a U.S. invasion was immanent and urged a hard line to Khrushchev.
This was the closest the U.S. and USSR had ever come to nuclear war.
Through difficult and awkward negotiations, the U.S. and Soviets worked out an arrangement.
The Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba and the U.S. would stop the quarantine and promise not to invade Cuba. The U.S. also privately agreed to remove their missiles from Turkey, pending NATO approval.
Because it appeared in the public eye that Khrushchev had backed down, the outcome weakened Khrushchev and strengthened JFK.
Khrushchev would remain in power only two more years.
The Soviets resolved to escalate their nuclear weapons program.
JFK's image as a powerful world leader would rise and JFK learned some dangerous lessons (1) a macho foreign policy works and (2) the CIA and other secret agencies are essential programs.
The U.S. military increased its hubris (military solution in Vietnam).
Castro's position in Cuba was strengthened.
Both superpowers resolved to establish good communications with each other to avoid another similar confrontation.
The U.S. and USSR created a direct-link "red telephone" system.
Greater U.S. and Soviet diplomacy led to a SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty) agreement by 1963.
The 1954 Brown decision against segregation in schools provided legal and moral support for the civil rights advocates and gave momentum for change.
The Court agreed with the NAACP argument that separate schools were harmful to black children, who were denied an equal education.
Because the decision was so ground-breaking, Chief Justice Warren sought a unanimous decision. But the justices were not all liberals. To get them all to approve the decision, it was agreed that no timetable would be imposed for school desegregation.
While a unanimous Court ordered schools to desegregate (without imposing a timetable), President Eisenhower (a Republican) did not side with the Court's decision and remained conspicuously silent on what should be done to desegregate the schools.
The Southern segregationists took heart from Ike's reaction and resolved to fight desegregation. They formed Citizens Councils and resurrected the symbolism of the Civil War and "states rights."
By 1960, 99% of Southern blacks continued to go to segregated schools.
The KKK enjoyed a resurgence after the Brown decision. Many angry Southerners organized to resist what they saw as federal intrusion into their local way of life. Many looked to the national leader, President Eisenhower, for guidance. However, Eisenhower was conspicuously silent about the Brown decision. Was this a failure of leadership at a crucial moment?
The Brown decision gave blacks a great legal victory, but white resistance made it clear that real reform would require direct action on their part.
Following the Brown decision, Little Rock adopted a plan for gradual integration, but white Citizens Councils opposed it, and Arkansas governor Orval Faubus threatened to use the state National Guard to prevent desegregation.
In 1957, 9 black students attempted to enter an all-white high school but were turned down by the Arkansas National Guard.
A threatening white crowd of 1000 gathered at the school forcing the 9 black youth to be evacuated.
The town mayor sent President Eisenhower a telegram requesting Federal troops for protection.
The President sent 1000 army troops and federalized the state National Guard. Under federal troop escort, the 9 children were allowed to enroll at the high School.
The incident forced the federal government's hand, and Eisenhower finally (albeit reluctantly) had stood for federally enforced school desegregation.