Horticulture 1 Test 5 Review
Terms in this set (101)
What does IPM stand for?
Integrated Pest Management
IPM is the most...
effective and environmentally friendly method approach to control.
What happens with IPM? How does it work?
IPM focuses on pest prevention by identifying, preventing and monitoring pests with the least amount of danger to the environment by the most economical means.
According to the EPA, "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a ______ of common-sense practices".
Chemical pesticides are only one part of the solution so therefore they are used...
more sparingly and wisely.
What are the Steps to integrate IPM?
1. Identify the pest.
2. Prevention of pests can be controlled by using cultural methods such as crop rotation, pest resistant varieties and planting pest-free rootstock.
3. Monitoring new infestations can be the best controlled by early detection.
4. Traps may be used to check pest population.
5. Use the less risky pest control first including pheromones that will disrupt pest mating or mechanical controls including traps.
6. If these methods are not effective, additional control methods including target spraying of a pesticide may be necessary. Broadcast spraying would be used as a last resort.
Step 1 in Integrating IPM
Identify the pest.
Step 2 in Integrating IPM
Prevention of pests can be controlled by using cultural methods such as crop rotation, pest resistant varieties and planting pest-free rootstock.
Step 3 in Integrating IPM
Monitoring new infestations can be the best controlled by early detection.
Step 4 in Integrating IPM
Traps may be used to check pest population.
Step 5 in Integrating IPM
Use the less risky pest control first including pheromones that will disrupt pest mating or mechanical controls including traps.
Step 6 in Integrating IPM
If these methods are not effective, additional control methods including target spraying of a pesticide may be necessary. Broadcast spraying would be used as a last resort.
Lady beetles or lady bugs both adults and larva feed on...
soft bodied insects (aphids), mites and eggs.
Parasitic wasps attack____ in the ____stage.
caterpillar, butterfly or moth egg or pupa, beetle egg and other insects in the egg, larva or pupa stage.
Praying mantis will eat...
just about any pest.
Green lacewing larvae are predators that feed mainly on...
soft bodied insects, mites, and eggs.
Predatory mites will attack ______.
spider mites at any stage of development inside a greenhouse or outside.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) mandates label language and standards. The Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for interpreting labeling standards and ensure that they are followed.
The Label is the Law. "It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling."
Required label information that must be on the label which is on or "securely attached" to the container. (Label Review Manual, EPA Chapter 3: General Labeling Requirements, May 2012) http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/chap-03.pdf http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/labeling/lrm/
Restricted Use Pesticide Statement (if applicable)
Product Name, Brand or Trademark - common name - Example Ortho
Ingredient Statement - name and percentage by weight of each active ingredient and percentage by weight of other inert ingredients
(KOOROC) Statement - hazard statement "Keep Out Of Reach Of Children" on almost all end-use products
Signal Word - appear on the front panel of the label and are determined by the most severe toxicity category the pesticide meets or by the presence of methanol at a greater level than 4%.
DANGER (not all danger pesticides have skull and crossbones)
It is highly toxic in at least one category - orally, dermally, through inhalation and/or causes severe eye or skin burn.
Toxicity category I - from a few drops to less than a teaspoon may be lethal if swallowed (oral toxicity)
Is moderately toxic in at least one category -orally, dermally, through inhalation and moderate eye and skin irritation.
Toxicity category II - from one teaspoon to a tablespoon may lethal if swallowed (oral toxicity)
Is slightly toxic to relatively non-toxic orally, dermally or through inhalation or causes slight eye and skin irritation.
Toxicity category III - from one ounce to over a pint may be swallowed before being lethal (oral toxicity)
Skull and Crossbones Symbol and the word Poison (written in red)
Only on those pesticides identified as Category I Toxicity (most deadly)
Based on at least one acute toxicity rating for acute oral, acute dermal, or acute inhalation or contains more than 4% methanol
First Aid Statement - Statement of practical treatment states what to do if a person swallows or is poisoned by spilling the chemical on the skin. This section will also have the toll free phone number for the National Pesticides Information Center.
Net contents/Net weight - measure of contents
EPA Registration Number and EPA Establishment Number - Identifies the facility that produced the product - allows for tracking products
Company name and address - identifies who produced or registered the product
Precautionary Statements - including
Hazards to Humans and Domestic Animals - identifies the particular route and rate of exposure as well as precautions
First Aid for various routes of exposure
Environmental Hazard indicates that the product may have undesirable effects in the environment (non-target organisms ) especially to wildlife such as bees, fish and birds.
Physical or Chemical Hazard informs individuals of specific fire or explosion hazards.
Directions for Use - including mixing and application for various pests. Tells how to legally use and how the product must not be used and includes information about the site, pest(s) controlled, application method, rate of application, and timing of application
May include Worker protection procedures.
PPE-personal protective equipment.
Examples of PPE are masks, coveralls, respirators, gloves, safety glasses or goggles and rubber boots.
Reentry time may be in this section as well - how much time must past before reentering a treated area.
Storage and Disposal instructions
Referral Statement to Directions for Use in booklet, if any (supplemental labeling)
"Securely attached" means the label can reasonably be expected to remain affixed during the foreseeable conditions and period of use.
General Environmental Statement states to watch for run off, avoid applying on windy days and keep pesticides out of storm water sewer drains.
Pesticide are identified by:
General Use can be purchased and applied by the general public.
Restricted Use can be purchased by a licensed certified applicator only, but may be applied by or under the direct supervision of a licensed certified applicator.
Unclassified pesticides are those that do not meet minimum requirements to be included in general use pesticides.
Type of pesticide.
Herbicide—kills unwanted plants.
Selective herbicides kill specific weeds or plants.
Non selective herbicides kill all plants with which they come in contact.
Fungicide controls fungi.
Form of substance
The most important safety rule is "read and follow label directions". All the rules are included in this one rule.
Diseases are plant disorders caused by an infectious pathogen or agent.
Three conditions necessary for diseases in plants.
Host plant is the plant the disease attacks.
Disease causing organism or pathogen must be present.
A favorable environment for disease organism to develop (moist and warm).
Bacteria are single celled microorganisms.
Examples of common bacteria diseases:
Bacterial leaf spot are rings of different shades of brown, green or yellow spots on leaves.
Bacterial blight cause plant to quickly turn brown or black as if they had been burned.
Fungi cannot make their own food, they develop hyphae, structures that grow and absorb nutrients from the host plant. Many fungi are spread by spores.
Examples of common fungi diseases:
Damping off causes young plants and seedling to rot off at the soil level.
Rust cause small spots on the leaves that resemble yellow, orange, brown or red rust mainly on the underside of leaves.
Powdery mildew grows on the upper and lower leaf surface as white or gray powdery substance. It is a common disease of houseplants.
Galls are round swellings or growths usually on tree branches or leaves.
Examples caused by bacteria or fungi are powdery mildew, blights, canker, rots, wilts and smut, canker, galls, leaf spot, mildew, rots and smut.
Viruses are pathogens with an extremely narrow host range and are usually a threat to crops.
Examples of common viruses:
Tobacco mosaic virus which attacks tomatoes, peppers, poinsettias and tobacco.
Tobacco mosaic virus can be transfer from human hands of a smoker. Be sure to wash your hands before working with plants to control the spread of this virus.
Mosaic virus cause leave to have irregular mottled areas with patterns ranging from dark to light green and yellow to white.
Examples caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi are wilts and blights.