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Environment Test #1 Laws
Terms in this set (20)
NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act of 1969)
First major modern environmental act that is basically a planning and participation-allowing act. NEPA has 3 primary purposes:
(1) establish a CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality), which is the federal watchdog of environmental policy;
(2) Requires federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account when they make certain decisions, which prior to NEPA they could not do because consideration of such effects was rarely listed in agencies' enabling acts as a factor to be taken into account in agency decision making, and;
(3) Requires that an EIS (Environmental Impact Statement, formal version of an EIA, or Environmental Impact Assessment) be prepared for every major legislative proposal or other federal agency action having a significant impact on the quality of the human environment.
CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality)
agency of NEPA
A federal agency in 1970 whose primary function is to serve the President in an advisory capacity, including advising on new policies and procedures. files an annual report (Environmental Quality Report) to the President on environmental matters in US and internationally.
USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
Agency of NEPA
Agency created in 1970. Primary federal agency responsible for managing pollution and other environmental issues in the US.
USACE (Army Corps of Engineers)
Agency of NEPA
Agency responsible for maintaining navigable waters in the U.S.. Also responsible for making permit decisions on wetland issues (Section 404 of the Clean Water Act).
LDEQ (Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality)
State version of USEPA. Responsible for managing pollution and other environmental issues pertaining to air, land and water resources in the State.
LDNR (Louisiana Dept of Natural Resources)
State agency responsible for managing natural resource issues in the state, including oil and gas, minerals, mining, and coastal wetlands.
LDWF (Louisiana Dept of Wildlife and Fisheries)
State agency responsible for managing wildlife and fisheries resources.
CAA (Clean Air Act) 1970
Primary federal law designed to control air pollution emissions. Initial focus on six "criteria air pollutants": Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Particulates and Lead. Significant problems include: Acid Deposition (by SOX or NOX interacting with sunlight and water vapor in upper atmosphere, which form sulfuric and nitric acids, which fall to earth as acid snow or acid rain); Ozone Depletion; Greenhouse Effect; Indoor Air Pollution (air-born toxins and irritants trapped in buildings). Use NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) to set limits on emissions. SIPs (State Implementation Plans) make the success of the CAA largely dependent on states and their ability to implement, enforce and monitor (uses non-attainment, quality based standards, and more recently emission trading for SOX)
FWPCA (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), or CWA (Clean Water Act) of 1972
Primary federal law designed to control water pollution in our surface waters (lakes and rivers). Technology-based standards to control point source emissions, and wetlands permitting. Major water pollutants include Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms); Conventional Organics (wastes from food processing, petroleum refining, municipal wastewater treatment, etc.); Toxic Trace Organics (PCBs, dioxins, solvents and pesticides); Heavy Metals (mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.). Preceded by 1899 Rivers and Harbors Act, Public Health Service Act of 1912, and Oil Pollution Act of 1924.
SDWA (Safe Drinking Water Act) 1974
Primary federal law that focuses on drinking water quality and groundwater resources, of which 50% of our drinking water in the US comes from (primary and secondary standards, enforcement, and aquifer protection).
TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act ) 1976, 1984
toxic substance control
Primary federal law regulating the manufacturing, processing, distribution, use and disposal of toxic substances.
FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) 1976
toxic substance control
Primary federal law that regulates toxic substances that are commonly referred to as "pesticides."
RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) 1976
Primary federal law regulating the proper management and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes "Cradle-to-grave" and manifest system for hazardous wastes, it includes hazardous and solid waste management, and recycling guidelines. It also regulates UST (Underground Storage Tank) Program that deals with gasoline, diesel and other tanks historically placed underground.
CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, or "Superfund") 1980
Primary federal law designed to plan for and respond to failures in other regulatory programs and to remedy problems resulting from action taken before we had adequate regulatory protection. $1.6 billion initial funding in1980. In 1986, upgraded with another $8.5 billion appropriation paid into by generators. Not at all like the other laws—IT'S ABOUT WHO PAYS, and it is very strict and draconian in nature.
OPA (Oil Pollution Act) 1990
Federal law dealing with who cleans up an oil spill and how
EPCRA (Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act) of 1986
. Primary federal law requiring state and local governments to plan for emergencies, including consideration of prevention (what chemicals do you have in your building, through an annual document entitled TRI, or Toxic Release Inventory).
SARA Act of 1986 (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986)
Contains the EPCRA; organized into three subtitles:
(A) covers emergency planning;
(B) specifies hazardous chemical reporting requirements, and
(C) describes how the public will have access to facility information
TRI reporting (Toxic Release Inventory)
a documentation of all companies toxic releases to air, land and water in every state---each state's citizen's have access to it so this puts "public pressure" on companies to produce less toxics.
Pollution Prevention (P2) Act (PPA) of 1990
States "pollution should be prevented at the source whenever feasible." Driving force is morality and economic benefits.
ESA (Endangered Species Act) of 1973
Major federal law designed to provide a means to preserve the ecosystems in which endangered species survive, to provide a program to conserve such species, and to enter into appropriate treaties for species protection on an international level.
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