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Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis
Terms in this set (14)
The 5 Ethical Guidelines
Play (Participant Protection)
Right to withdraw
Participants need to be informed that they are allowed to pull out of the research at any point and will not need to suffer any consequences
Participants should not be hurt, mentally or physically, and should not be forced to do what they don't want to do.
i.e. participants should not made to feel humiliated
Participants should know the true aim of the study before giving consent, however sometimes it is acceptable to not reveal everything to the participant to avoid participant bias, and that the participant will not be hurt.
If the participant is under 18, parents will need to give consent.
If the participant is unable to give consent, i.e. memory is impaired (HM) then families can give consent.
Information of the participant (i.e. name, address) should not be shared with the world and their identity should be kept anonymous.
Deception should be avoided as much as possible, though sometimes it is necessary to avoid participant bias and it can't be avoided, though participants should eventually find out the truth.
Cognitive: HM Case Study
Had a brain surgery to correct his epilepsy but it also removed his hippocampus. As a result he was unable to form new memories and thought that he was 27 years old for the rest of his life (27 was when he had the surgery).
He would not remember giving consent to being researched on (his family did), and even if he wanted to withdraw he would forget.
Cognitive: Clive Wearing Case Study
Had a viral infection in his brain, and this affected his hippocampal region. He has anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
ETHICAL ISSUES: Wearing did not personally give consent to participating in the studies, his family.
Due to his short memory span he would not remember being debriefed, giving consent, wanting to withdraw or not, and confidentially is also breached, the whole world knows who he is.
Cognitive emotions: Speisman et al (Lazarus, 1964)
A - To investigate the extent to which manipulation of cognitive appraisal could influence emotional experience.
M - Anxiety provoking films were shown under different soundtracks (conditions):
(1) Trauma condition, the soundtrack emphasised on the mutilation.
(2) Intellectualising condition, soundtrack made the film seem like a documentary.
(3) Denial condition, soundtrack made the boys willing and happy to be mutilated.
Heart rate and palm sweat were being measured in all conditions.
R - Denying or intellectualising the film reduced the stress experienced
C - Supports Lazarus' Theory of Emotion, the participants are appraising the film in a manner that they treat it like an educational film, they tell themselves it's not real.
Cognitive emotions: Ethical Issues (Speisman et al)
1. PARTICIPANT PROTECTION - Researchers are producing anxiety in the participant, which could also cause psychological damage.
Cognitive emotions: Schachter and Singer (1962)
A - To test out their two-factor theory of emotion
M - The participants were male college students and they were all injected with adrenaline (except the placebo group) and were divided into 4 groups:
1. Informed - they were given information of the side effects of adrenaline injection
2. Ignorant - they were not told of any side effects to the injection
3. Misinformed - they were given the wrong side effects
4. Placebo group received an injection of saline solution
R - The informed group associated the emotion they felt during the Euphoria and Anger condition to the adrenaline injection, the misinformed and uninformed classified the emotion to the stimulus.
C - Both physiological changes and environmental stimulus will be needed to create emotion.
Cognitive emotions: Ethical Issues (Schachter and Singer 1962)
1. Participant protection: Participants could have been scared of injections.
Biological emotions: Ax (1953)
A/H - There will be clear differences in physiological reactions associated with fear and anger respectively.
M - 22 participants received the fear stimulation first, and 21 received the anger stimulation first. /Physiological processes were measured every minute/ Fear condition: gradually increasing electric shocks, and researcher appears shocked, suggesting that it wasn't planned and therefore the participant feels fear, eventually the researcher makes the situation seem life-threatening which increases fear in the participant (lasted for 5 minutes)/ Anger condition:Rude operator criticises the nurse and the participant, directly insulting and blaming the participant for 5 minutes, and eventually leaves.
R - Different physical changes for fear and anger
C - Supports the James-Lange theory of emotion
Biological emotions: Ethical Issues (Ax, 1953)
1. DECEPTION, CONSENT - Participants were falsely informed of the purpose of the study
2. CONSENT, PROTECTION - Researchers are creating negative emotions in the participants without them knowing.
3. PARTICIPANT PROTECTION - Participants experienced fear or anger
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