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SOC 100 Exam 1
Terms in this set (30)
What is sociology?
scientific study of the huan beings in the social worlds they create and inhabit
What are social institutions?
big systems in a society that fill important functions (macro view) that have a particular recognized purpose.
Name the five universal social institutions
What are Universal Social Institutions?
Elements that all societies have in some form and fulfill key roles
What is sociological imagination and who came up with it and when?
the practice of being able to "think ourselves away" from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them with fresh, critical eyes.
created by C. Wright Mills published in 1959
What is 'human agency'? How does it relate to social structure? Do Sociologists believe that both agency and social structure can matter in determining someone's life chances?
the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices. Social structure, such as class, can limit an agent and their decision.
When did sociology emerge as a discipline?
took root in the 1700's and recognized as "sociology" in 1800's
what is enlightenment thinking?
the belief in reason and rationalit to create understanding. practical, useful knowledge in how to control nature
micro vs macro sociological perspective?
-small scale interactions between individuals, such as conversation.
-Big picture view of society, large scale
critical/non-critical sociological perspective?
-perception that some findings/issues are good and some bad... there may need to be change
-just report. no concern or opinion about what is good/bad. just simply seeing what "is"
Why can we call sociology a science and what is the most important step in the research process?
we use the scientific process to answer questions about society
finding a specific and answerable question
formal vs substantive theory??
-Expanatory perspectives that can be apllied to any topic
the process of identifying differences and similarities of contextualized instances, and patterns, across and within case studies focused on a similar theme.
Qualitive research vs Quantitive research
-attempt to collect info about social world that CANNOT be readily converted to numeric form
-seeks to obtain info about social world that is in or can be converted to numeric form
Who coined the TERM sociology and positivism.
August Comte - found it important to stick as closely to scientific studies as well.
What central question motivated much of Durkheim's work?
"What holds society together?"
Mechanical v. Organic Solidarity
-the social integration of members of a society who have common values and beliefs.
- refers to societies that are held together by the division of labor, which causes people to be dependent upon each other
What is positivism and give an example.
an approach to the study of society that specifically utilizes scientific evidence such as experiments, statistics, and qualitative results to reveal a truth about the way society functions
Example: scientific method
What two social factors did Durkheim finds leads to higher suicide rate in society?
What are the definitions of Social Integration & Social regulation.
-people's norms, beliefs, and values that make up a collective consciousness, or a shared way of understanding and behaving in the world
-Ethics, Morality and Social Cohesion
What are the four kinds of suicide?
- being alone or an outsider and subsequently they see
-sacrifice, cult, suicide bomber
-considerable stress/frustration caused
-too high of rules. north korea
What is Bourgeoisie in Marx' view?
the capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production.
What is Proletariat?
workers or working-class people, regarded collectively
What is class consciousness?
Marx's term for awareness of a common identity based on one's position in the means of production
Define false consciousness
a way of thinking that prevents a person from perceiving the true nature of their social or economic situation
What did marx predict would happen to capitalism and why?
Predicted it would be overthrown because the lower class would become resentful of the constant exploitation from the upper class and repent
What is the conflict theory?
states that society is a product of ongoing conflict between key groups. says inequality is the root.
What is structural functionalism and why is it seen as problematic by some sociologists?
the perspective explains social structures in term of their functions. different but related parts much like a body.
looks at society as a whole and doesn't pay attention to smaller issues that are problematic
Who is Robert Merton?
Functionalist that looked at the difference between manifest and latent function.
What is symbolic interactionism?
perspective that looks at how we create meaning through our everyday actions
What is post-modernism?
there is no absolute truth to anything
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