Defined as anything that has mass and occupies space.
This subunit of an atom is found within the nucleus of the atom - and possesses a positive charge.
This subunit of an atom has no charge (electrically neutral) and is found within the nucleus of the atom.
This subunit of an atom possesses a negative charge - negligible mass - and is found orbiting the nucleus in shells (orbits).
Defined as the number of protons found in the nucleus of a given atom.
This term is defined as the number of protons plus the number of neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In an effort to become more stable - a sodium atom will lose an electron - and become one of these. (positive ion)
In an effort to become more stable - a chlorine atom will gain an electron - and thus become one of these. (negative ion)
This term refers to a variation of an atom that either gains or loses neutrons - rather than electrons - they are often used in medicine and research.
This type of chemical bond is formed when one atom gains an electron and the other loses an electron - this resulting molecule has a neutral charge.
Polar Covalent Bond
This type of bond is created when atoms share electrons - but not equally - creating both negatively and positively charged regions within the molecule - an example of this bond is found in water.
This type of chemical bond - although relatively weak and easily broken - helps to maintain the complex shape of large macromolecules like proteins.
Defined as a substance that releases (generates) hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water.
Defined as a substance that releases (generates) hydroxide ions when it is dissolved in water.
If a substance is dissolved in water - and releases (generates) neither hydrogen nor hydroxide ions - it is one of these.
In a solution - this substance actually does the dissolving - water is an excellent example of one of these.
In a solution - this is the substance that is actually dissolved.
This term refers to a substance that works to keep our internal pH stable (within the homeostatic range) - it can either bond with hydrogen ions or release hydrogen ions to help prevent dramatic changes in pH.
A simple sugar (typically 6 carbons or less) - examples include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
These organic molecules are defined as short chains of two or more monosaccharides - examples include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
These organic molecules are complex chains of hundreds - or even thousands of monosaccharides linked together - examples include amylose, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin.
This organic molecule - also referred to as a neutral fat - is comprised of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
These lipids come from an animal source (butter, lard, bacon fat, etc.) - and exist as solids at room temperature.
These lipids are from plant sources (corn, peanut, safflower, oils, etc.) - and are liquids at room temperature.
In our bodies - bile is used to break large fats (lipids) into smaller pieces so that they can be digested - this is the term for that process.
This organic molecule is the major structural component of our cell membranes - it is comprised of hydrophilic heads of glycerol and hydrophobic tails of fatty acids.
Examples of this organic molecule are vitamin D, cholesterol, estrogen, and testosterone - complex lipids that have very important functions in our bodies.
This type of organic molecule is defined as a highly insoluble lipid - and acts as water repellent/insulator on the fur and feathers of animals/birds, and outer protective covering of many leaves and stems, and used in the construction of beehives.
These molecules are the "building blocks" of all proteins - held together by numerous peptide bonds.
This type of bond holds amino acids together in our proteins.
This term describes a process where a complex protein loses its shape (and usually its function) due to the breaking of its hydrogen bonds.
This term refers to the subunit (building block) of all nucleic acids - it is comprised of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Adenosine Triphosphate - a very important nucleotide that is the main source of energy for our body's cells.
This type of nucleic acid - called Deoxyribonucleic Acid - is a double strand of nucleotides that forms the genetic material of our cells.
This type of nucleic acid - called Ribonucleic Acid - is comprised of a single strand and is responsible for directing the synthesis (production) of proteins in all of our cells.
Non-polar Covalent Bond
In this type of chemical bond - electrons are shared equally between two atoms - like in a molecule of oxygen gas - these are very strong bonds.
Properties of Water
■Highly polar molecule. ■Maintains body temperature. Absorbs and releases energy (heat) slowly. ■Has high surface tension (cohesion). ■Universal solvent. ■Involved in most reactions in the body - making it our most important inorganic molecule.
Ranges from 0 to 14. 0 most acidic. 14 most alkaline (basic). 7 is neutral. Human blood is between 7.35 - 7.45.
Monosaccharide: blood sugar - the main source of energy for most organisms.
Monosaccharide: fruit sugar.
Monosaccharide: milk sugar.
Disaccharide: table sugar from sugar cane or sugar beets (glucose + fructose).
Disaccharide: milk sugar (glucose + galactose).
Disaccharide: malt or grain sugar (glucose + glucose).
Polysaccharide: plant starch - stored energy source in plants.
Polysaccharide: indigestible fiber found commonly in plant cell walls - has a structural function.
Polysaccharide: animal starch (quick energy source stored in animal tissues) - most notably the liver and skeletal muscles.
Polysaccharide: insoluble, structural substance found in the exoskeletons of certain insects (arthropods) - very strong.
Lipids (The Fats)
■Insoluble in water - they are "non-polar" molecules. ■Mostly hydrocarbons. ■Form basic structures of animal cell membranes. ■Storage of energy (on average more than twice the energy of carbohydrates gram for gram). ■Provide insulation/protective function.
Human fat cells. Unlimited capacity to store fat.
20 Different Amino Acids
"12 non-essential" (liver can synthesize). "8 essential" (need in diet).
■Act as enzymes - catalyze reactions in all organisms. ■Structure. ■Regulatory - controls cell activities (hormones). ■Transport - hemoglobin transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.