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59 terms

europe and russia shaped by history

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athens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
policies
methods and plans a government uses to do work
who could vote in Athens?
free men (NOT women, slaves and non-greeks)
city-states
a self governing city and its surrounding area- ancient greece had over 100
Alexander the Great
356-323 b.c., king of Macedonia 336-323: conqueror of Greek city-states and of the Persian empire from Asia Minor and Egypt to India.
empire
a group of countries under a single authority
When romans took over Alexander's lands, they took over many ______
Greek ideas
Jesus
Religious leader and founder of Christianity
Rome
the former center of the both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire;capital of present-day Italy
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace in Rome. A period of time when Rome was the most powerful. Magnificent cities were built, new technologies were developed and the economy prospered
Modern ideas about how law and citizenship used by democratic governments are based on ___ ____
Roman Law
Palestine
former name of the area that today includes israel
what caused the spread of christianity in Ancient Rome?
When the Roman emperor Constantine became a follower of christianity
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
After the government, law and order, and trade broke down, what gave the Romans hope?
Christianity
feudalism
system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners- a way to organize society when there was no central government
Middle Ages
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
serfs
peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages- made up about 90% of the population. they were not slaves, they had to follow the lord's rules and in return were given protection and work.
how did conditions for the serfs improve by the 1400's?
Trade increase, serfs bought their freedom from the lords and moved into towns, where they could practice trades and take advantage of opportunities
Augustus
first Roman emperor; won the civil war following Julius Ceaser's assasiantion and went on to unify the empire and establish the Pax Romana
Describe the Roman Empire during Pax Romana
Rome was the most powerful state in Europe. cities, technologies, and economy were built and prospered. Judges followed written laws to make decisions. These written laws protected all citizens in the empire, not just the rich and powerful. Mondern ideas about laws and citizenship used by democratic government are based on Roman Law
What hurt the economy after Pax Romana?
Taxes raised to maintain the army. The emperor could no longer rules such a huge area. The empire was divided into 2 parts. The western 1/2 began to crumble.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
The Age of Discovery
Period of time beginning in 1450 when exploration began. While Columbus was sailing across the Atlantic in search of a new route to China, Japan, and the Spice Islands and India, the Portugeuese were making their way down the western coast of Africa and set up a profitable trade in gold, ivory and trade.
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history. A rediscovery of the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome. Poetry, paintings, and sculptures were created as a result of the spare time they had.
European Monarchs
Kings or queens who rule a kingdom, These people did not need the support of the feudal lords. They became very rich because of the Age of Exploration
middle class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans., Period of sailing and accurate mapping of the world; spices, gold, precious mineral, fur and tobacco were discovered from far away lands
humanism
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity.People focused on improving this world.
absolute monarchs
kings or queens who hold total power
Louis XIV
The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power. He believed his power to rule came from God.
How did Louis XIV's rule affect the economy?
The people were taxed heavily to support his lifestyle.
The Age of Revolution
Intellectuals challenged notions about God-ordained rule (and their governments).

In addition, they challenged the dominance of religion and religious groups. And as this idea began to be increasingly challenged, questions about divine right, as compared to human rights, lead to the development of ideas about human rights and inequalities.
Parliament
The lawmaking body of England that was elected
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Scientific revolution
Time period in which thinkers began to experiment, observe, and analyze the natural world. 2., the series of events that led to the birth of modern science- the Scientific Method was a result of this revolution
calculus
a form of mathematics that was founded to study the movement of the moon and planets
Gutenberg
Inventor of the printing press- movable type. This made books much less expensive and helped ideas to spread quickly
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
First machines in Industrial Revolution were invented to ____
speed up the spinning of thread and the weaving of textiles.
textiles
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
spinning mules
huge machines that could spin fiber into thread
How did the Industrial Revolution change the lives of farmers?
For centuries they worked the land. Now they moved to cramped, dirty quarters in rapidly growing cities to find work
What were factory conditions like?
not safe, and wages were low
How did unsafe working conditions change the laws?
Nations became more democratic as working people were given a voice in passing laws and setting policies
imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Age of Imperialism
the late 1800's, a time when industrial countries took over other countries for economic gain
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it- late 1900's
destructive nationalism
can make anger and hatred erupt between nations as they compete with each other for the world's resources, wealth, and power.
alliances
An agreement between nations to aid and protect each other (in a war)
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.
Creative Nationalism
the US and Soviet Union took over as the world's leading nations while Europe rebuilt and repaired their societies.
Westernization
Adoption of western ideas, technology and culture
3 themes of the history of Russia
expansion; the harsh treatment of the common people, and slow westernization
Golden Horde
a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century
Muscovy
Moscow, once a collection of lands ruled by weak princes who did not get along
Kiev
capital and largest city of the Ukraine
in 1240, what happened in Russia?
The Mongols conquered Kiev and the whole territory became part of the Mongol Empire.
Mongol Empire
Largest land empire in the history of the world, spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. Kept people cut off from the culture of Western Europe. Demanded service in the army and high taxes. The princes gained land and power until they were able to overthrow the Mongolian rule