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Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.


methods and plans a government uses to do work

who could vote in Athens?

free men (NOT women, slaves and non-greeks)


a self governing city and its surrounding area- ancient greece had over 100

Alexander the Great

356-323 b.c., king of Macedonia 336-323: conqueror of Greek city-states and of the Persian empire from Asia Minor and Egypt to India.


a group of countries under a single authority

When romans took over Alexander's lands, they took over many ______

Greek ideas


Religious leader and founder of Christianity


the former center of the both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire;capital of present-day Italy

Pax Romana

200 year period of peace in Rome. A period of time when Rome was the most powerful. Magnificent cities were built, new technologies were developed and the economy prospered

Modern ideas about how law and citizenship used by democratic governments are based on ___ ____

Roman Law


former name of the area that today includes israel

what caused the spread of christianity in Ancient Rome?

When the Roman emperor Constantine became a follower of christianity


Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians

After the government, law and order, and trade broke down, what gave the Romans hope?



system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners- a way to organize society when there was no central government

Middle Ages

the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."


peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages- made up about 90% of the population. they were not slaves, they had to follow the lord's rules and in return were given protection and work.

how did conditions for the serfs improve by the 1400's?

Trade increase, serfs bought their freedom from the lords and moved into towns, where they could practice trades and take advantage of opportunities


first Roman emperor; won the civil war following Julius Ceaser's assasiantion and went on to unify the empire and establish the Pax Romana

Describe the Roman Empire during Pax Romana

Rome was the most powerful state in Europe. cities, technologies, and economy were built and prospered. Judges followed written laws to make decisions. These written laws protected all citizens in the empire, not just the rich and powerful. Mondern ideas about laws and citizenship used by democratic government are based on Roman Law

What hurt the economy after Pax Romana?

Taxes raised to maintain the army. The emperor could no longer rules such a huge area. The empire was divided into 2 parts. The western 1/2 began to crumble.

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

The Age of Discovery

Period of time beginning in 1450 when exploration began. While Columbus was sailing across the Atlantic in search of a new route to China, Japan, and the Spice Islands and India, the Portugeuese were making their way down the western coast of Africa and set up a profitable trade in gold, ivory and trade.


The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history. A rediscovery of the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome. Poetry, paintings, and sculptures were created as a result of the spare time they had.

European Monarchs

Kings or queens who rule a kingdom, These people did not need the support of the feudal lords. They became very rich because of the Age of Exploration

middle class

A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers

Age of Exploration

Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans., Period of sailing and accurate mapping of the world; spices, gold, precious mineral, fur and tobacco were discovered from far away lands


A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity.People focused on improving this world.

absolute monarchs

kings or queens who hold total power

Louis XIV

The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power. He believed his power to rule came from God.

How did Louis XIV's rule affect the economy?

The people were taxed heavily to support his lifestyle.

The Age of Revolution

Intellectuals challenged notions about God-ordained rule (and their governments).

In addition, they challenged the dominance of religion and religious groups. And as this idea began to be increasingly challenged, questions about divine right, as compared to human rights, lead to the development of ideas about human rights and inequalities.


The lawmaking body of England that was elected


the overthrow of a government by those who are governed

Scientific revolution

Time period in which thinkers began to experiment, observe, and analyze the natural world. 2., the series of events that led to the birth of modern science- the Scientific Method was a result of this revolution


a form of mathematics that was founded to study the movement of the moon and planets


Inventor of the printing press- movable type. This made books much less expensive and helped ideas to spread quickly

Industrial Revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

First machines in Industrial Revolution were invented to ____

speed up the spinning of thread and the weaving of textiles.


fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing

spinning mules

huge machines that could spin fiber into thread

How did the Industrial Revolution change the lives of farmers?

For centuries they worked the land. Now they moved to cramped, dirty quarters in rapidly growing cities to find work

What were factory conditions like?

not safe, and wages were low

How did unsafe working conditions change the laws?

Nations became more democratic as working people were given a voice in passing laws and setting policies


A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Age of Imperialism

the late 1800's, a time when industrial countries took over other countries for economic gain


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it- late 1900's

destructive nationalism

can make anger and hatred erupt between nations as they compete with each other for the world's resources, wealth, and power.


An agreement between nations to aid and protect each other (in a war)

World War II

War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.

Creative Nationalism

the US and Soviet Union took over as the world's leading nations while Europe rebuilt and repaired their societies.


Adoption of western ideas, technology and culture

3 themes of the history of Russia

expansion; the harsh treatment of the common people, and slow westernization

Golden Horde

a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century


Moscow, once a collection of lands ruled by weak princes who did not get along


capital and largest city of the Ukraine

in 1240, what happened in Russia?

The Mongols conquered Kiev and the whole territory became part of the Mongol Empire.

Mongol Empire

Largest land empire in the history of the world, spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. Kept people cut off from the culture of Western Europe. Demanded service in the army and high taxes. The princes gained land and power until they were able to overthrow the Mongolian rule

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