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Age of stars in disk
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Gas and dust are abundant in the disk but not in the halo
Disk stars come in broad ranges of masses and colors, while halo stars are mostly of low mass and red
Clusters of young stars are found only in the disk
Stars in the disk all orbit in the same direction and nearly the same plane, while halo stars have more randomly oriented orbits
It is probably a halo star that is currently passing through the disk
All the disk stars in our vicinity should be orbiting the galactic center at about the same speed, which is why their speeds relative to the Sun are fairly low. Halo stars have very different orbits, so when they pass through the disk they have high speeds relative to the nearby disk stars.
The disk stars have nearly circular orbits. They have vertical motions out of the plane, making them appear to bob up and down, but they never get "too far" from the disk. Orbits of stars in the bulge and the halo of the galaxy are much less orderly, traveling around the galactic center on elliptical orbits with more or less random orientations.