PSY454 Lecture 4

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nissl stainsoutline all cell bodies because the dyes are attracted to RNA, which encircles the nucleusautoradiographyshows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissuesimmunocytochemistrycan detect a protein in tissue *antibody binds to the protein *chemical treatments make the antibody visibleanterograde labelinguses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell and then transported to the axon tipsretrograde labelinguses horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and is taken up in the axon terminals and transported to the cell bodies, then visualized through chemical reactionsmultipolar neuronsone axon, many dendrites (most common)bipolar neuronsone axon, one dendritemonopolar neuronsa single extension branches in two directions, forming a receptive pole and an output zonelarge neurons-have more complex inputs and outputs -cover greater distances -convey information more rapidlymotoneurons-motor neurons -stimulate muscles or glandssensory neuronsrespond to environmental stimuli, such as light, odor, or touchinterneuronsreceive input from and send input to other neuronsastrocytesstar-shaped cells with many processes that receive neuronal input and monitor activitymicroglial cellssmall cells that remove debris from injured cellsmyelinationprocess in which glial cells wrap axons with fatty sheath, myelin, to insulate and speed conductionoligodendrocytesglial cells that form myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cordschwann cellsprovide myelin to cells outside the brain and spinal cordglial cells respond to...injury by edema (swelling) *also susceptible to tumorswhite matterconsists of mostly axons with white myelin sheathsgray mattercontains more cell bodies and dendrites which lack myelinterms used to describe location referring to the nervous system-ventral -dorsal -anterior -posterior -lateral -medialventraltoward the stomachdorsaltoward the backanteriortoward the front endposteriortoward the back endlateraltoward the sidemedialtoward the midlineproximallocated close to the point of origin or attachmentdistallocated more distant from the point of origin or attachmentipsilateralon the same side of the body (e.g., two parts on the left or two on the right)contralateralon the opposite side of the body (one on the left and one on the right)coronal planeplane that shows brain structures as seen from the front (makes crown)sagittal planeplane that shows brain structures as seen from the side (splitting hemispheres)horizontal planeplane that shows brain structures as seen from above (splits brain horizontally)bell-magendie law-entering dorsal roots carry sensory information -exiting ventral roots carry motor informationdorsal root gangliacell bodies of sensory neurons located in clusters of neuronsPNS: somatic nervous system-conveys sensory information to the CNS -transmits messages for motor movement from CNS to the bodyPNS: autonomic nervous system-sends and receives messages to regulate the automatic behaviors of the body (heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, etc.) -two subsystems: sympathetic and parasympatheticsympathetic nervous system-network of nerves that prepares the organs for rigorous activity (fight or flight) -comprised of ganglia on the left and right of the spinal cord -mainly uses norepinephrine as neurotransmitterparasympathetic nervous system-facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses (rest and digest) -decreases functions increased by the sympathetic system -comprised of long pre ganglion axons extending from the spinal cord and short post ganglionic fibers that attach to organs themselves *post ganglionic axons mostly release ACh as neurotransmitterthree major divisions of the brain-hindbrain -midbrain -forebrainhindbrain-consists of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum -located at the posterior portion of the brain -part of the brain stemmedullalocated just above the spinal cord, could be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord *responsible for vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezingcranial nervesallow the medulla to control sensations from the head, muscle movements in the head, and many parasympathetic outputs to the organspons-lies on each side of the medulla -along with medulla, contains reticular formation and raphe system -works in conjunction to increase arousal and readiness of other parts of the brainraphe systemalso sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to stimulireticular formation-descending portion is one of the several brain areas that control the motor areas of the spinal cord -ascending portion sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attentioncerebellum-structure located in the hindbrain with many deep folds -helps regulate motor movement, balance and coordination -also important for shifting attention between auditory and visual stimulimidbrain-tectum: roof of midbrain -superior/inferior colliculus: located on each side of the tectum and processes sensory info -tagmentum: intermediate level of the midbrain containing nuclei for cranial nerves and part of the reticular formation -substantia nigra: gives rise to the dopamine-containing pathway facilitating readiness for movementforebrain-most anterior and prominent part of the mammalian brain -consists of two cerebral hemispheres: outer portion (cerebral cortex), subcortical regions (thalamus and basal ganglia)limbic system-consists of a number of interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem -olfactory bulb -hypothalamus -hippocampus -amygdala -cingulate gyrus of cerebral cortex *associated with motivation, emotion, drives and aggressionhypothalamus-small area near the base of the brain -conveys messages to the pituitary gland to alter the release of hormones -associated with behaviors such as eating, drinking, sexual behavior and other motivated behaviorspituitary glandhormone producing gland found at the base of the hypothalamusbasal ganglia-comprised of caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus -associated with planning of motor movement and aspects of memory and emotional expressionbasal forebrain-comprised of several structures that lie on the dorsal surface of the forebrain -contains nucleus basalis (receives input from hypothalamus and basal ganglia, sends axons that release ACh to cerebral cortex) *key part of the brain's system for arousal, wakefulness and attentionhippocampuslarge structure located between thalamus and cerebral cortex *critical for storing certain types of memorymeningesmembranes that surround the brain and spinal cordslide 80cerebral