Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
The movement to end slavery.
1865. Amendment abolishing and continually prohibiting slavery. With limited exception, such as those guilty of committing a crime, it also prevents indentured servitude.
declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights and their rights wer protected by due process
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
WEB du Bois
A Harvard trained professional who called for equal rights immediately for African Americans. He founded the NAACP that aimed to help African Americans improve.
Booker T. Washington
A Former slave, he suggested that African Americans accept segregation-for now, instead focus on vocational and farming skills to help improve their situation.
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
-were the first African American military aviators in the United States armed forces. During World War II, African Americans in many U.S. states still were subject to racist Jim Crow laws. Despite these adversities, they trained and flew with distinction.
Desegregation of Armed Forces
July 1948, President Truman issued an executive order that established a policy of racial equality in military; ended segregation in U.S. military.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Martin Luther King Jr.
1950s; civil rights leader advocated non-violence and civil disobedience as tools for change; organized protests such as the March on Washington, as well as indirectly inspired sit-ins and protests across the nation
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Little Rock Crisis
Ike forced to send National Guard to escort black children to school to quell riots and resistance (first time since Reconstruction that troops used in the south to enforce Constitutional); resistance by white community (private schools)
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
to protest at lunch counters that served only whites, African Americans students began staging this
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
A strategy of refusing to purchase goods or refusing to cooperate with an organization or government in order to protest practices that are regarded as unfair.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
1964. Supreme Court said that there would be penalties for those who deprived others of equal enjoyment of places of accommodation on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.
Loving v. Virginia
1867 court case that declared all laws against interracial marriage unconstitutional due to 14th amendment equal rights clause
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
University of California Board of Regents v. Bakke
Declared that the UC Davis violated Bakke's rights, ruled that schools could use racial criteria as part of their admissions process so long as they did not use fixed quotas
Los Angeles Riots
Outbreak of violence in 1992 caused by the acquittal of four white policemen of beating an African American = Rodney King, motorist in Los Angeles
De Jure segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
De Facto Segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.