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Barbee 1202 Theme 2 Exam
Terms in this set (25)
Can we ordinarily distinguish a bacterial cell from an archaean cell under the microscope?
What are the common cell structures between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, DNA
Why are the the bacteria and archaea placed in different domains?
Big differences in bacteria and archaea, the divergence of the three kingdoms is so far back that they pre-date the emergence of eukaryotes entirely. Fungi and other eukaryotes are more similar to archaea than the bacteria.
To which the two prokaryotic domains are we most closely related?
Archaea are more closely related to the eukaryotes, the branch that includes humans and most other familiar organisms.
Name a couple of Archaean groups that are adapted to specific extreme environments.
Methanogens, thermophiles, halophiles
What can these extreme environments tell us about the conditions for life on the early earth?
Early earth had harsh conditions
How would you define a protist?
Single-celled, eukaryotic, reproduce asexually
Do protists have their own distinct kingdom?
They are not represented by a single kingdom
What is the unique taxonomic level that we use to classify them (protists), and where does that taxon fit among the classification levels from domain to genus and species?
Supergroups: archaeaplastids and opisthokontids
What protist group is thought to be the ancestors of plants? What three lines of evidence support this claim?
The archaeaplastids; red algae, green algae, and land plants
What protist group is thought to be the ancestor of the fungi?
What protist group is thought to be the ancestor of the animals?
How did eukaryotic cells get their nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts?
Mitochondria used to be free-living aerobic bacteria, chloroplasts originated from free-living photosynthetic bacteria, and the nucleus came from infoldings of the cell membrane
What's the name given to that theory (above), and what evidence do we have about these organelles to support it?
Endosymbiosis: they both have their own DNA and copy it on their own, they both divide on their own schedule independent of the host cell, and their membrane proteins are similar to those of free living aerobic and photosynthetic bacteria
Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, hornworts)
Waxy cuticle, rhizoids (not real roots), gametophyte dominant, no vascular tissue, no seeds, no flowers
Seedless vascular plants
Pteridophytes (ferns and related forms)
Vascular seed plants
Gymnosperms (pines, fir, spruce, cycads, gink) and angiosperms (flowering plants)
Why do we think the green algae were the ancestors of the higher plants?
Plant characteristics: multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic
Relationship to green algae: both have chlorophyll A and B, both have cell walls of cellulose, both share energy as starch
The charophyte green algae are likely the ancestors to the multicellular green plants
What were the main challenges that the ancestors of land plants faced for survival outside of water?
1. Losing water - solution: waxy cuticle, stomata
2. Getting CO2 into the plant and getting O2 out - solution: stomata
3. Moving water/nutrients from cells in water (roots) to cells NOT in water - solution: vascular tissue (plumbing)
4. Growing against gravity - solution: vascular tissue
5. Getting the gametes together - solution: pollen, seeds, flowers, fruit
What was the name of the earliest fossil land plant and to what broader group did it belong?
Cooksonia and rhyniophytes
What are the differences between the animal life cycle and the plant life cycle?
Plant cycle: both diploid (sporophyte) and haploid (gametophyte), has mitosis 3 times and meiosis once
Animal cycle: skips over haploid, has only mitosis and meiosis once
Be sure that you can identify which plant groups have dominant sporophytes or gametophytes.
The dominant stage in Pteridophytes: sporophytes
The dominant stage in Angiosperms: sporophytes
What was the adaptive advantage of plants having dominant sporophytes?
Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem), and well developed roots and leaves
What were the main advantages that the gymnosperms had over the ferns?
Gymnosperms produce pollen and do not require water to reproduce
What were the major adaptations that made the angiosperms more successful than the gymnosperms?
Angiosperms can produce flowers and fruits to aid in seed dispersal
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