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Unit 8 - selection and adaptation
Terms in this set (26)
the very slow, ongoing natural process in which the organisms best suited for their environment survive to reproduce and carry on their species.
the theory that species gradually change over time, through random variations that improve the chances of certain individuals to survive and reproduce.
a quality or characteristic that makes one organism different from another.
crossing carefully chosen plants or animals to produce offspring with certain desirable traits. (Also known as artificial selection.)
the changing of genes in a laboratory to produce a particular trait in an organism.
an animal, plant, or microbe whose DNA has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
a small piece of DNA that codes for a protein.
the whole amount of code in an organism's DNA.
a change in genes that produces a trait in an animal or plant that did not appear in its parents.
the difference in genome between individuals in a population. Caused by mutations.
a structure or behavior that helps an organism survive in its environment.
Survival of fittest
the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment, with the extinction of others that are not well adapted to their environment.
a medicine that can kill or slow the growth of bacteria.
Animals cannot "choose" to adapt. Adaptations are caused by pressures in their environment selecting for certain traits or behaviors
Something VERY important to remember about adaptation.
Natural Selective Pressures (Competition, Weather Events, Food shortages, etc.)
Causes of NATURAL SELECTION
Green and brown beetles exist. Green beetles tend to get eaten by birds and reproduce less than brown beetles. Brown beetles pass their advantageous traits down to offspring and the population favors the brown beetles.
BEETLE example of NATURAL SELECTION
Brown and tan mice live in an area where the rocks are very dark. Tan mice are more visible to predatory birds and are eaten more. Only surviving mice will reach maturity and reproduce. Because the black mice had a higher chance of survival and reproducing, the following generations contain more black mice.
MICE example of NATURAL SELECTION
Humans choose what "best" traits are and which ones will be passed on
Causes of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Dogs being bred for certain traits, such as: Golden Retrievers: First bred in Scotland to retrieve fowl
DOG example of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Watermelon being selected and bred to be sweeter, bigger, and grown in more areas.
WATERMELON example of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Human Interference (NATURAL SELECTION)
Humans can have an indirect effect on NATURAL SELECTION, by changing habitats, impacting the climate, or affecting organism survival in direct and indirect ways.
Human Interference (ARTIFICIAL SELECTION)
When humans control which desirable traits will be passed on from generation to generation, such as through selective breeding or genetic modification.
When bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic initially, they will die. However, some bacteria can develop a genetic mutation, or change. This change allows them to survive and multiply even after being exposed to an antibiotic.
Adaptation and Climate Change example
Like most butterflies, monarchs are highly sensitive to weather and climate: They depend on environmental cues (temperature in particular) to trigger reproduction, migration, and hibernation.
Their dependence on milkweed alone as a host plant is a further vulnerability, as milkweed (monarch's preferred food) is declining throughout the monarch range due to climate change.
Crops that are more durable for shipping/transport, more resistant to pests, more drought resistant, can be bigger & produce larger edible parts, can be cheaper to grow, and can look and taste better than traditional plants used for food
Positives of GMO foods
Crops can possibly cause allergic reactions in some people, can promote the use of environmentally damaging weed killers, and some information is not yet known about their long term health effects, as it is still a relatively new technology
Negatives of GMO foods
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