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Bio Chapters 19,20,21,22
Terms in this set (90)
One can estimate a population's size by counting individuals in a sample of the population if the..
... distribution of individuals in the sample is the same as that in population
Although the United States has a larger total population than Japan, population density is greater in Japan because the..
.. geographical area is greater in the United States
A population is likely to grow most rapidly if it has..
.. a high percentage of young individuals
The exponential model of population growth applies...
... when there are no limiting factors
The logistic model of population growth..
..reflects the fact that the birth rate decreases as the population grows
One example of a density-dependent limiting factor is a ..
.. shortage of nesting sites
Which Of the following is not a threat to the survival of small populations?
breeding in captivity
The global growth rate of human population is..
.. increasing but at a slower rate than in mid 1960s
The current population growth rates of developed countries..
..are lower than those of developing countries
A country may have a negative growth rate if its..
... death rate is higher than its birth rate
the statistical study of populations. It is used to predict how the size of a population will change.
- A population's size is the number of individuals in a population
- Population size has an important effect on the ability of the population to survive
Is the number of individuals that live in a given area
- Effects: If they are too far apart they may only rarely encounter one another resulting in little reproduction
density-dependent factors and density-independent factors
the distribution of individuals within the population ( random, uniform, or clumped)
the number of births occurring in a period of time
the number of deaths occurring in a period of time
- the growth rate of a population is the amount by which a population's size changes in a given time
the movement of individuals into a population
the movement of individuals out of a population
The exponential model
- The exponential model describes perpetual growth at a steady rate in a population
- The model assumes constant birth and death rates and no immigration or emigration
The logistic model
- In the logistic model, birth rates fall and death rates climb as the population grows
- When the carrying capacity is reached, the number of individuals the environment can support is reached and population growth becomes stable
the population size the environment can sustain
Perils of small populations
Small populations have low genetic diversity and are subject to inbreeding so they are less likely to adapt to environmental changes
an example of mimicry that is important in anti-preDator defense is when ..
... a harmless species resembles a dangerous species
One difference between predators and parasites is that parasites..
.. usually do not cause the immediate death of the organism they feed on
Magpies and crows are scavenger birds that feed on the same food sources and cannot live in the same community. This is an example of..
.. competitive exclusion
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not affected is called..
Species that predominate early in the development of a community are called..
One explanation for the greater number of species in the Tropics than in temperate zones is that..
.. there is more energy available to support more organisms in the tropics
The stable endpoint of succession is called..
.. climax community
Why does primary succession often proceed very slowly?
An ecosystem is developing where no ecosystem exists and there is a lack of soil.
Why are agricultural fields often less stable than natural communities in the same area?
In agricultural fields there is vulnerability to outbreaks of insect pests because these fields usually consist of one species of plants and there is no biodiversity.
is the change in an existing community following a disturbance
- Secondary succession occurs in areas where the original ecosystem has been cleared by a disturbance
is the assembly of a community on newly created habitat
- Primary succession occurs in areas that have been recently exposed to the elements and lack soil
the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by another organism
is an interaction in which one organism (the predator) captures and eats all or part of another
occurs when two or more species live together where at least one receives benefit.
The three types of symbiosis are parasitism, commensalism and mutualism.
one species (the parasite) feeds on, but does not always kill, another species (the host).
one species benefits, and the other is not affected.
both interacting species benefit.
occurs when two species use the same resources in an ecosystem.
occurs betweens organisms of different species.
occurs between organisms of the same species.
anything needed by an organism for life
the elimination of one species in a community.
An adaptation in which a species gains an advantage by resembling another species or object.
Plants use a variety of physical defenses; including tough leaves, sticky
hairs, spines and sharp thorns.
Many plants use chemical defenses; specifically secondary compounds including poisons and irritants.
is a change in the species composition of a community over time.
The biome that is characterized by the presence of permafrost is called..
Plants living in the taiga ( coniferous forest) are adapted for..
long cold winters
The prairie is one of the different names for the biome known as ..
Which of the following is not an adaptation that limits water loss in desert plants?
broad thin leaves
The amount of light that reaches the floor of a tropical rainforest is limited by the..
.. forest canopy
Which of the following is not an environmental factor that organisms in the intertidal zone must cope with?
.. are rich in vegetation
Why aren't the forests of the taiga cut down and converted into farmland as often os temperate deciduous forests?
Forests of the taiga do not have as much precipitation as deciduous forests. They also have long winters and nutrient-poor soil.
Name two factors that limit tree growth in the tundra
Little precipitation and cold temperatures
Describe three adaptations of desert organisms that conserve water.
Plants have waxy coatings. Animals hide during the day and come out at night. Plants have little stomata and animals have tough skin.
Why are vines so common in rain forests?
They need a lot of trees to climb.
Why is plankton important to aquatic ecosystems?
Plankton is a food source for larger animals
Explain how producers near deep-sea vents obtain energy.
They obtain energy by using energy in hydrogen sulfide from the vents.
The portion of Earth that includes all rivers, lakes, and oceans is the..
The mass extinction currently under way is different from previous mass extinctions because it..
.. is being largely caused by humans
The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is important because it ..
.. absorbs most of the sun's ultraviolet radiation
The increase in the concentration of pesticides in organisms at the top of the food chain is an example of ..
The ozone hole is a ..
.. zone of very low ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica
One of the likely effects of damage to the ozone layer is an..
.. increase in the incidence of skin cancer in humans
Since the 1960s the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has..
.. increased rapidly
Doubling of the human population might..
hasten global warming and decrease the amount of undeveloped land
What causes acid precipitations?
Air pollution mixes with water to form acids resulting in acid precipitation
some possible consequences of doubling Earth's human population
Less undeveloped land, increase in greenhouse gases, lack of resources
Heat trapped near the earth due to build up of greenhouse gases - CO2, H2O vapor, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (NO2). It is a naturally occurring process, but most damage is from human actions. Without greenhouse gases the Earth's average temperature would be -18oC (0oF).
- Earth looks blue because 70% is covered with water
- 3% of this water is freshwater, 97% is salt water
- of the 3% fresh, most is frozen in ice and glaciers leaving less than 1% available for drinking,
bathing, and crops.
-solid portion of the earth
Gases include 78% Nitrogen (N2), 21% Oxygen (O2), 1% Other gases including: Argon,
H2O vapor, CO2,
(O3) is necessary to life since among other things it protects us from sun's harmful
UV radiation by absorbing this UV rays before they reach earth. (UV radiation can damage DNA and cause mutations.) The Ozone Layer is about 20 km (11-16 miles) above Earth's surface.
is about 11 km below sea level, and about 9 km above the surface for a total of 20 km where all life on our planet exists.
The variety of life forms in an area.
is reflected in the species richness, species evenness and genetic diversity.
is produced by putting substances, that may cause unintended harm, into the air, water, or soil.
causes visibly polluted air from release of chemicals released from human activities. Smog is made up of water vapors mixed with these chemicals. Smog may contain any mixture of the following:
• nitrogen oxides - NOx
• sulfur oxides - SOx
• organic chemicals
• small particles
• ozone - O3
(CFCs) - Man-made chemicals that destroy the ozone layer.
• Results in a dramatic increase in skin cancer and harms plants and photosynthetic algae, which
could damage the carbon-oxygen cycle on Earth.
• It will take over 100 years for ozone layer to recover
There is a direct relationship between rising CO2 levels and warming of the Earth's temperatures. CO2 on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere traps heat close to the surface. A doubling of CO2 in the atmosphere increases the Earth's temperature by 1.0oC - 4.5oC (2oF - 8oF)
Scientists predict temperatures will rise more than 2oC during the next 100 years. This rise will cause
certain huge changes, such as:
• alter rainfall patterns
• changes in soil moisture
• increases/decreases in sea levels around the world
• shifts in agricultural regions
• disrupt terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
Acid Precipitation (Acid Rain)
- Some air pollutants combine with water vapor in the atmosphere and form acids. This results in precipitation that has a low pH and is acidic.
• Organisms require neutral pH of 7 for optimum health.
• When this acid precipitation falls on water or soil it causes the overall pH to drop, often to levels
well below optimal. This may cause death or disease in tree, fish, and other organisms.
is death to every member of a species. Scientists believe that more than 20% of our plant
and animal life will become extinct in the next 50 years due to human activity.
are species that are at risk to become extinct, usually due to habitat destruction
The ability to meet human needs in a way that human population can survive.
Recommended textbook explanations
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
Karen Arms, Michael R. Heithaus
Eldon D. Enger
Holt Environmental Science (Florida)
Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn
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