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The atmosphere

is more than percent contained within the first 0 miles from the earth's surface

Which of the following is shown as a heavy blue line with triangles?

cold front

Which of the following are used to identify places of equal atmospheric pressure?


By volume, how much more water vapor is there in the Earth's atmosphere than is there carbon dioxide?

almost times

What is the residence time of oxygen and nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere?

000 years

Which of the following temperature scales is the only one to begin at the zero point?


The troposphere contains what % of the mass of the atmosphere?


The heterosphere

is populated primarily by variable gases

This is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere


0 Nitrogen

has little effect on climate

This is NOT a variable gas


Water vapor

has evaporation as its primary source

Carbon dioxide

is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

are highest in early spring


must give off less carbon than is fixed through photosynthesis if a plant is to experience net growth


absorbs ultraviolet light


has increased in concentration over the last 0 or so years

Ozone depletion

is considered a serious problem in most developed countries


can be either solid or liquid

0 Aerosols are typically removed from the atmosphere by

falling precipitation

This was probably the predominant gas in Earth's earliest atmosphere


The recent alternative explanation for the disappearance of Earth's early atmosphere sees this as the primary causative agent

collisions of Earth with other large bodies

Volcanic outgassing

emits large amounts of water vapor

This is the least likely reason for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

leakage into space from the upper atmosphere

The evolution to an oxygen-rich atmosphere

occurred at the same time the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide were decreasing

The high levels of atmospheric nitrogen are due primarily to the fact that

nitrogen has a very long residence time

Atmospheric gas

will, for a given amount of gas, experience an increase in pressure if the volume of the gas is decreased

The troposphere

is characterized in part by vertical mixing of air

The troposphere

is thicker in summer

0 The highest temperatures are typically found in the


The maximum concentrations of ozone are found in the


The temperature is lowest here


In this atmospheric layer, the temperature is relatively constant for the first 0 kilometers, then it increases


The stratosphere

has a low moisture content compared to the troposphere

The ozone layer

absorbs ultraviolet energy

The thermosphere

has a low heat content

The ionosphere

ends in the thermosphere

The D-layer of the ionosphere

has most of its electrons combined with positively charged ions at night

The aurora borealis

emits light as electrons move from higher orbits around the nucleus to lower ones

0 Of the following planets, which has the most massive atmosphere?


The Martian atmosphere

consists primarily of carbon dioxide

The atmosphere is a mixture of

gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture

Relatively speaking, the earth's atmosphere is

very thin when compared to the earth's diameter

The region of the earth's atmosphere below 0 km is called

the homosphere

The difference between the atmosphere's "permanent" gasses and "variable" gasses is that

permanent gasses exhibit a constant proportion from the earth's surface to higher reaches of the atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important variable gas because

all of the above

Ozone is found primarily in the ________ and is important because of ________

stratosphere; its interaction with ultraviolet radiation

The four layers of the atmosphere from the top down are

thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere

The "stratosphere" warms because of

the interaction of ozone and ultraviolet light

0 The "ionosphere" is so designated because

of the electrical charges of atoms associated with it

The percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (by hemisphere varies by season because

all of the above

What do you notice concerning the percentage of permanent gasses throughout the atmosphere (all levels?

It is the same throughout the atmosphere from the surface up

The atmosphere is held in place by


The most costly average annual weather event is


The weather event that annually takes the most human life is the

extreme cold

The most destructive tornadoes are rated as a


At a height of 0 miles, what is the density of the atmosphere when compared to sea level?


The average length of time that individual molecules of a given substance remain in the atmosphere is called the

residence time

Which of the following gases is crucial to to the existence of all forms of life?


0 Which of the following would be considered to be a "variable" gas?

water vapor

The increase in carbon dioxide concentration since the 0s is NOT the result of which of the following?

none of the above

Which of the following will increase given an increase in pressure?


The atmosphere consists of a mixture of gas molecules and precipitation


Only a gas with a long residence time can be in a steady state


Permanent gases typically have fewer types of atoms in their molecules than do variable gases


Variable gases spend most of their time in the homosphere


Water vapor content varies widely over the surface of the earth


Like carbon dioxide concentrations, the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere shows a pronounced seasonal variation


The concentration of ozone in polluted areas is typically much higher than it is in the ozone layer


0 During the spring there is a high level of mixing of the Antarctic atmosphere with air from the northern hemisphere


Most of the changes in the earth's atmosphere took place during the first billion years of the earth's history


Large volcanic eruptions are more likely to bring a cooler climate than a warmer climate


The "pauses" in the atmosphere are typically associated with changes in temperature


Some thunderstorms can extend into the lower stratosphere


A man in a space suit would feel colder in Denver than if he were floating above the earth in the thermosphere


Because of changes in the D-layer at night, most AM radio stations increase the power of their transmitters during darkness


Compared to the earth's atmosphere, Jupiter's atmosphere contains a greater percentage of hydrogen


________ is the most abundant of the variable gases in the atmosphere

Water vapor

0 Photosynthesis removes this gas from the atmosphere ________

carbon dioxide

Respiration requires the presence of this gas ________


Cattle emit the greenhouse gas ________ through their digestive processes


The ________ were the first producers of substantial amounts of oxygen

anaerobic bacteria

The term meteorology

is the study of the atmosphere and its related weather systems

The BEST definition of the term climate is

a comprehensive statistical analysis of aggregate weather conditions in a specific place or region

In the process of scientific inquiry, a theory is best defined as

a hypothesis that has been extensively tested and is generally accepted by the scientific community

An interacting group of parts that is fueled by energy and works to accomplish the movement of matter or energy is called

a system

Which of the following describes a system's response to positive feedback?

The system's operation is enhanced or changed

Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?

collect data; develop hypothesis; test hypothesis; accept/modify/reject hypothesis

00 Dust in the atmosphere is NOT associated with which of the following?

the solar constant

0 On the average, for every km increase in altitude in the troposphere the air temperature

drops about degrees Celsius

0 The most important source of the free oxygen in our atmosphere is

green plants that carry on photosynthesis

0 The vertical temperature structure of the troposphere is described by

air temperature

0 Water vapor represents what fraction of the air near the Earth's surface?

less than percent

0 The least dense portion of the solid Earth is the


0 The Earth system

includes parts that affect one another

0 Photosynthesis

releases oxygen into the atmosphere

0 The troposphere is most likely to be thickest

over the equator

0 The level of the atmosphere with the highest temperatures is the ________


0 The aurora that is visible in the southern hemisphere is the

aurora australis

Which of the following spheres is composed exclusively of water?


The ozone layer is found in the


The summit of Mt Everest ( km is found in the


Radiosondes have been used regularly since

the late 0s

Which of the following is NOT true of radiosondes?

They are launched hourly from nearly every weather station in the United States

In meteorological terminology, the acronym TRMM refers to

the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite

Which of the following associations is INCORRECT?

closed systems?require matter to both enter and leave the system, but not energy

The common boundary where different parts of a system interact is called

an interface

Which one of the following is not a term used to designate one of the "spheres" of the Earth's environment?


0 Decay of plants, animals eating, and volcanic eruptions are all part of which major Earth system cycle?

the carbon cycle

The formation of fossil fuels begins when

biomass is deposited and buried with sediment instead of decaying

Air may best be described as

a mixture

Which one of the following is the MOST abundant gas in the atmosphere?


Which two gases make up a combined total of % of clean, dry air in the homosphere?

nitrogen and oxygen

Scientists believe that a growing amount of this gas in the atmosphere will probably bring about a warming of the lower atmosphere

carbon dioxide

What best explains the "bumps" seen in the seen in the CO concentrations on the graph above?

Changes in plant growth that result in less CO being absorbed during the dormant season

Which of the following is NOT a variable component of the atmosphere?


This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas at the temperatures and pressures that normally exist on Earth


This atmospheric component absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the Sun


0 Ninety percent of our atmosphere lies below an altitude of about


With an increase in altitude, air pressure

decreases at a decreasing rate

Atmospheric pressure is caused by

the weight of the air above

When chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are subjected to sunlight, ________ is released which acts to destroy ozone molecules


Which of the following is the MOST important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?

water vapor

The four thermal layers of the atmosphere in order beginning from the surface are

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere

The term troposphere literally means

region where air "turns over"

Which of the following associations is CORRECT?

mesosphere?begins at a height of 0 km

The "weather sphere" is in the


The lowest temperatures in the atmosphere exist in the


0 Ozone is concentrated in the


The heterosphere and ionosphere are BOTH found in the


A primary difference between the concepts of weather and climate is the

time period involved

Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere?


The approximate altitude of auroral displays is

0 - 00 km

The ionosphere is an atmospheric region defined on the basis of

electrical charges

Which of these is NOT a significant factor in the role played by particles or dust in the atmosphere?

ozone production

The normal lapse rate applies to the


This country has the greatest variety of weather in the world

United States

The majority of the water outside of the oceans is in the form of

glacial ice

0 The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except

the chemical composition of the air

Which one of the following gases has the greatest effect on weather?

water vapor

Studies have shown that on average ozone depletion is greatest over this area



protects life on Earth by filtering harmful UV radiation from sunlight

The Montreal Protocol

has already created a reduction in ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere

The first function of water vapor in the Earth's original atmosphere was to

fall as rain and thus cool the Earth's surface

The aurora borealis will most likely be stronger

when there is a lot of solar flare activity

The primary function of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is to

provide satellite data about precipitation in the low latitudes, over both land and water

Climate knowledge can be used to accurately predict weather


The thermosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere


0 Weather occurs in the thermosphere


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