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34 terms

Bio chapter 8 (DNA/RNA)

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Griffith
Experiment: S-form/R-form
Discovery: Finds the transforming principle
Avery
Experiment: Isolated and purified Griffith's transforming principle
Discovery: DNA is the transforming principle
Chargoff
Experiment: Adenine=Thymine;Cytosine=Guanine
Discovery:Determined the base pairing rule
Franklin
Experiment: X-ray diffraction
Discovery: Discovered DNA is a double-helix
Watson/Crick
Experiment: Used model building behind the picture from Franklin's lab
Discovery: 3-dimensional structure of DNA
What is Chargaff's rule?
Base pairing rules that show how nucleotides always pair up in DNA.
What is the base pairing rule?
A-->T ; C-->G
(A/G-purines) (T/C-pyrimidines)
What holds the nitrogenous bases in DNA together?
Hydrogen Bonds
What holds the backbone of DNA together?
Covalent Bonds
List all the ways DNA differs from RNA
1. DNA is single stranded
2. Uses uracil instead of thymine
3. Has a ribose sugar
What are the different types of RNA?
tRNA, mRNA, rRNA
tRNA
Transfer RNA; brings amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes
mRNA
Messenger RNA; carries message to be translated to a protein
rRNA
Ribosomal RNA; forms part of ribosomes where proteins are made
What is a codon?
A three sequence nucleotide that codes for amino acids
What is the central dogma?
Flowing in one direction from DNA --> RNA --> Proteins (aka replication->transcription->translation)
What happens in protein synthesis?
Protein synthesis is two parts-translation in the cytoplasm, transcription in the nucleus
What are purines?
Double ringed; A/G
What are pyrimidines?
Single ringed; T/C
What enzymes are involved in replication? What do they do?
The enzyme helicase unzips the hydrogen bond and polymerase attaches nitrogen bases
What enzymes are involved in protein synthesis? What do they do?
RNA, protein synthesis only has polymerase
Point mutation
Single base, addition/deletion/subtraction
Frameshift mutation
Shift in the reading
Silent mutation
Nothing happens
Nonsense mutation
Stop codon where it does not belong
What do the letters in DNA stand for?
Deoxiribose nuceic acid
Two scientists given credit for discovering the structure of DNA are:
Watson and Crick
What are the monomers of DNA?
Nucleotides
What two components is the backbone of DNA made up of?
Sugar, Phosphate
What are the names of the four variations of monomers?
Thymine, Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine
What are the three processes of the central dogma?
Transcription, Translation, Replication
What organelle reads the mRNA strand?
Ribosome
Any change in DNA is a:
Mutation
What is transcription catalyzed by?
Enzymes