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Experiment: S-form/R-form
Discovery: Finds the transforming principle


Experiment: Isolated and purified Griffith's transforming principle
Discovery: DNA is the transforming principle


Experiment: Adenine=Thymine;Cytosine=Guanine
Discovery:Determined the base pairing rule


Experiment: X-ray diffraction
Discovery: Discovered DNA is a double-helix


Experiment: Used model building behind the picture from Franklin's lab
Discovery: 3-dimensional structure of DNA

What is Chargaff's rule?

Base pairing rules that show how nucleotides always pair up in DNA.

What is the base pairing rule?

A-->T ; C-->G
(A/G-purines) (T/C-pyrimidines)

What holds the nitrogenous bases in DNA together?

Hydrogen Bonds

What holds the backbone of DNA together?

Covalent Bonds

List all the ways DNA differs from RNA

1. DNA is single stranded
2. Uses uracil instead of thymine
3. Has a ribose sugar

What are the different types of RNA?



Transfer RNA; brings amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes


Messenger RNA; carries message to be translated to a protein


Ribosomal RNA; forms part of ribosomes where proteins are made

What is a codon?

A three sequence nucleotide that codes for amino acids

What is the central dogma?

Flowing in one direction from DNA --> RNA --> Proteins (aka replication->transcription->translation)

What happens in protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis is two parts-translation in the cytoplasm, transcription in the nucleus

What are purines?

Double ringed; A/G

What are pyrimidines?

Single ringed; T/C

What enzymes are involved in replication? What do they do?

The enzyme helicase unzips the hydrogen bond and polymerase attaches nitrogen bases

What enzymes are involved in protein synthesis? What do they do?

RNA, protein synthesis only has polymerase

Point mutation

Single base, addition/deletion/subtraction

Frameshift mutation

Shift in the reading

Silent mutation

Nothing happens

Nonsense mutation

Stop codon where it does not belong

What do the letters in DNA stand for?

Deoxiribose nuceic acid

Two scientists given credit for discovering the structure of DNA are:

Watson and Crick

What are the monomers of DNA?


What two components is the backbone of DNA made up of?

Sugar, Phosphate

What are the names of the four variations of monomers?

Thymine, Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine

What are the three processes of the central dogma?

Transcription, Translation, Replication

What organelle reads the mRNA strand?


Any change in DNA is a:


What is transcription catalyzed by?


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