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Bio Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (150)
Difficulties cell faces as it gets larger?
less efficient in moving wastes across cell membrane and into and out of cell/ supply of DNA will no longer be adequate to guide cell's activity
Why is the surface to volume ratio so important?
The cell needs to supply its volume with nutrients and eliminate the wastes it produces. The cell moves
these materials across its cell membrane. If the cell has a large surface area (lots of cell membrane),
relative to its volume, the cell has plenty of cell membrane to use to transport materials. As the amount
of surface area available becomes smaller, relative to the volume, the cell is less able to move sufficient
materials across its limited surface area to supply its volume. All else being equal, massive cells have a
huge demand for delivery of nutrients and elimination of wastes (huge volume), but they have relatively
limited ability to meet those demands (small surface area. limited cell membrane size)
Organisms can grow how without becoming too large to function efficiently?
single cell then divides before it gets too big. Each cell remains with effective SA/V ratio
production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of an organism
asexual reproduction pros
-rapidly and efficiently produce numerous offspring
-exact copy produces organism well-suited to the environment
sexual reproduction pros
-changing environment is good so the fittest of the variable organisms can survive
Why is making a complete copy of genetic info important in cells?
so each daughter cell has a complete set of DNA instructions
threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information
How chromosomes of prokaryotes differ from chromosomes of eukaryotes.
prokaryotes - single, circular chromosomes in the cytoplasm
eukaryotes - multiple linear chromosomes in the nucleus
During which phase does DNA in the cell change?
DNA doubles in S phase and chromosomes are replicated
During which phases do amounts of proteins in cell change?
G1 and G2 do protein synthesis and grow (make duplicated structures) in prep for mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division in which the cell nucleus divides
division of cytoplasm to form 2 daughter cells
sa symbiotic relationship evolved over time, between primitive eukaryotic cells and the porkarytoic between them
type of baacteria that entered the ancient anaerobic bacteria
ancient anerobic bacteria
organelle that resulted from the association with ancient anerobic bacteria
bacteria that associated with some primitive aerobic eukaryotes
ancient photosynthetic bacteria
advantages cells would gain from association with specialized bacterial partnersa and vice versa
prokaryotic cell that associated with aerobic bacteria would gain the ability to use oxygen to generate energy rich ATP. Cell associated with photosythetic bacteria would be able to produce food from the sun. The host cell, in return, likely provided some benfit, such as protection orother resources, to the specialized bacterial partners.
evidence Lyn Margulis gathered to support the endosymbiotic theory
1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA similar to bacterial DNA
2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have ribosomes whose size and structure closely resemble thoseof bacteria
3. Mitochondria and chloroplasts, like bacteria, reproduce by binary fission when cells containing them divide by mitosis
Mitochondria and chloroplasts, then, share many features of free-living bacteria. These similarities provide strong evidence of commonancestry between free-living bacteria and the organelles of free-living eukaryotic cells.
How did the development of sexual reproduction alter the rate of evolution?
sped up evolutionary change by increasing genetic variation. Can also produce variation through muatation (so can asexual)
When does the release of an egg occur?
between the 12th and 16th days
When is the greatest possibility of pregnancy?
between the 12th and 18th days because after ovulation, the egg lives only a few days, and if not fertilized, it disintegrates and is reabsorbed
When does menstruation begin?
when estrogen and progesterone are declining
When is the uterus most prepared to receive the fertilized egg?
16th to 21st days
Where does the menstrual flow come from?
the wall of the uterus
What happens after mRNA undergoes transcription?
it goes through a modification of removal of introns and addition of adenines
process of making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
What is the first step that scientists do to make transgenic bacteria that makes insulin?
cut out the insulin
Explanation of why band is the same base pair length after gel electrophoresis for each individual.
forgot to use restriction enzymes, the individuals are identical twins, or the restriction enzyme did not recognize a restriction site on either DNA sample
What replaces the role of DNA helices in PCR?
How would gene therapy be beneficial to those with hemophilia?
usually treated by receiving injections of normal clotting protein - by having a virus that inserts a functioning copy of a gene so they can make their own clotting proteins. Normal functioning
How are DNA nucleotide sequences read?
computer scanner reads the dye-labeled nucleotide of the end of each length fragment. Occurrs after the separation of the different length DNA stands, and this determines the actual nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragments.
An example of variation in human skin color
Possible future benefit of stem cell research
creating heart cells to replace damaged tissue in a heart attack
1st person to propose a theory of evolution
What are the results of a genetic switch?
noncoding region of DNA could have a bigger impact on the evolution of species than the same type of mutation in coding regions of DNA (a region that specifies amino acid sequences of proteins)
Where does transcription occur?
in the nucleus
What kind of cells work better?
small cells - larger cells are less efficient in moving nutrients in and wastes out - a large surface area per unit volume is efficient
What ratio is inefficient?
Surface area / volume - small cells have a greater surface area compared to volume
Why do cells divide?
the organism grows and the cells divide so they don't become to big to function efficiently
-less energy devoted to finding partners
-advantage in unchanging environment
-variation of offspring helps in a changing environment
What are examples of vestigial structures?
Hind leg bones and pelvis bones of whales and wings of flightless birds
Hutton and Lyell's work suggest what?
the Earth is very old
The wing of a bird and the wing of a bee would be described as...
What year did Darwin begin his famous voyage?
Where did Darwin travel along with his voyage on the Beagle?
FRom England, around the southern tip South America,across the Pacific to Australia, and then under the southern tip of Africa, and back to England
3 kinds of variation that Darwin observed on Beagle voyage
organsims vary globally, locally, and over time
What did Hutton and Lyell conclude about the Earth's history?
the Earth is very old and the processes that changed it in the past are still affective in the present
What did most Europeans think at the time?
Earth was only a few 1000 years old and it hadn't changed much
How did Lamarck propose that species evolved?
inheritance through acquired characteristics
Malthus's view on population growth
if human pop. grew unchecked, not enough living space and food for everyone
allowing only organism with desirable traits reproduce in order to increase the number of individuals with these traits
any heritable characteristic that increases and organism's ability to survive and reproduce in the next generation
Traits that are passed from parents to offspring because they are at least partially determined by genes.
how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment
Organsim produces many offspring but none of them reach maturity? High or low fitness?
low fitness because its offspring will not pass on its traits to the next generation
characteristic that affects grasshopper's fitness
When does natural selection occur?
any situation in which more individuals are born then can survive. Natural heritable variation and variable fitness among individuals
What does Darwin's mechanism of evolution state about living and extinct species?
according to principle of descent, all species - living and extinct - descended from ancient common ancestors
descent with modification
If you follow the
generations produced from a given individual, they will not be clones of the ancestor. A variety of
descendants may have been born, but the descendents that had the traits that were best suited to the
environment are the individuals that had the greater fitness (that is, greater survival and reproductive
success). Accordingly, over long periods of time and multiple generations, the environment will steadily
modify (through natural selection) the descendants of an individual.
the study of where organisms live now and where they lived in the past
How would Darwin explain how very closely related species have distinct differences when the occupy different lands on the Galapagos islands?
over time, natural selection on the different islands produced variation among populations that resulted indifferent, but closely related island species
How would Darwin explain that distantly related species have striking similarities when they occupy similar habitats, even if those species are found on opposite sides of the world
similar selection pressures in similar habitats caused distantly related species to develop similar adaptions
What is the age of the Earth (amount of time that evolution by natural selection has had to cause incremental change)?
4.5 billion years old
How do fossils help to documentt the descent of modern species from ancient ancestors?
trace the evolution from modern species to extinct ancestors
What has gradually happened to the pelvic and limb bones over 10 million years (according to the fossil records) that species of whale ancestors have been evolving into modern day species?
the pelvic and limb bones became markedly reduced in the more modern species
Why has this gradual change in pelvic and limb bone structure occurred over time?
as generations of modern species transitioned into aquatic habitats,natural selection favored a more streamlined body shape with hind limbs
structures that are shared by related species and are inherited by a common ancestor
body parts that share common structure but not function (similarities that are not owing to shared ancestry) ex: the wing of a bee and the wing of a bird
structure inherited by ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function owing to different selection pressure acting on the descendant
one reason organisms retain vestigial structures
presence of structure does not affect an organism's fitness and so natural selection does not act to eliminate it
What genetic similarity among al organisms suggest that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor?
the genetic code is nearly identical in all organisms - bacteria, yeasts, plant, fungi, and animals
Why do scientists use larger sections of DNA to infer evolutionary relationships?
They prefer not to use small sections of DNA because chance could play too big a role in the results.
Darwin's assumptions and bed beak size
1. for beak size and shape to evolve, there must be enough heritable variation in those traits to provide raw material for natural selection
2. differences in beak size and shape must produce differences in fitness
2 major conclusions of the Grant's research
1. natural selection takes place in wild finch population frequently, and sometimes rapidly
2. variation within a species increases the likelihood of that species' adapting to and surviving change
Where and when were fossils first found?
In Australia in 3.5 billion year old rock
What did these fossils resemble?
modern photosynthetic bacteria, indicating that photosynthesis had evolved
Why are older fossils tough to find?
older rocks have melted, eroded, or transformed taking fossils with them.
When did eukaryotes first appear?
eukaryotic fossils found from 2.1 billion years ago. until then only life form had been prokaryotes for 1 billion years
a partnership between organisms
the Endosymbiont hypothesis of eukaryotic origin was proposed by who?
What did mitochondria and chloroplast first originate as?
How did eukaryotes originate?
symbiosis between large anaerobic prokaryotes and smaller aerobic or photosynthetic prokaryotes
The organelles of mitochondria and chloroplast have what?
their own DNA and ribosomes / their genes and ribosomes are similar to bacteria / only organelles with double membranes
How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
The early earth was composed mainly off which gases?
CO2, H2O, N2, WATER VAPOR, etc. (O2 probably not present at first)
When did the first photosynthetic organisms produce O2?
2.1 billion years ago
ozone layer produced by reactions of oxygen - protected organisms from DNA damaging UV radiation
simple organic compounds
amino acids, nucleotides, etc.
How did simple organic compounds form?
Oparin and Haldane - energy sources (lightning) transformed gases of early atmosphere into simple organic compounds, making the food for the 1st primitive life forms (Heterotroph Hypothesis)
Miller-Urey experiment - 1953
-built chamber that simulated conditions of early earth
-made simple organic compounds (amino acids) from gases of early atmosphere in the presence of sparks (lightning)
What does the Miller-Urey experiment infer?
-many common amino acids, DNA, and RNA bases, and sugars can be produced
-can infer that organic molecules could have formed from nonliving sources
Sexual organs in animals
Release eggs into the oviducts (Fallopian tubes)
Site where the embryo will develop if egg is fertilized; oviducts carry eggs from the ovaries here
Caused by blocked oviducts; preventing pregnancy - physical barriers like condoms, diaphram or preventing ovulation - birth control pills with synthetic hormones
-inner lining of uterus builds up in prep for fertilized egg
-no fertilization, lining disintegrates and flows out of the vagina - period
What do ovaries release?
Low levels of estrogen and progesterone
What does the pituitary gland release?
FSH - follicle stimulating hormone and LH which cause the egg to start maturing
What is the significance of estrogen levels increasing?
Causes the lining of the uterus to develop in prep for embryo.
When days LH sharply increase
Day 14 - causing ovulation and release of egg
-if no fertilization, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, causing the lining of the uterus to disintegrate #menstruation
When is a placenta formed?
If fertilization and embryo implants in the uterine lining.
What does the placenta release?
HCG - causes continued high levels of estrogen and progesterone, maintaining pregnancy and preventing disintegration of the lining
What indicates that a woman is preggers?
Where do the testes hang out?
Outside the body in the scrotum - helps body to keep slightly cooler for optimal sperm production.
What hormone stimulates meiotic division in testes, producing sperm?
Tube the sperm travels through
What adds seminal fluid along with the sperm?
Prostate gland and other glands
What does the seminal fluid do?
Facilitates transportation and provides sugar and energy for the sperm.
Propels semen (sperm and seminal fluid) out of urethra of penis
Males produce not estrogen but
What secondary sex characteristics do hormones cause?
Facial hair, breasts
When do secondary sex characteristics begin?
Gases of the early atmosphere were transformed into simple organic compounds which were food for the first primitive life forms
How did complex organic molecules form? (Nucleic acids, proteins, etc. )
Repeating crystal structure on the surface of clay might have attracted (IMFs), concentrated, and organized simple molecules, catalyzing their bonding into complex biomolecules (Cairns-Smith)
How was RNA so versatile in the early Earth?
May have served as both information molecule and catalyst - later DNA became the main info molecule and protein enzymes the biological catalyst.
Example of artificial selection
Animal breeders produce variation in domestic species of dogs through deliberate mating selections
How do organisms change over time?
Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection - influenced by artificial selection
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection criteria:
1. Heritable variation in species
2. Overproduction in offspring
3. "Struggle for existence" (competition for limited resources; dealing with predation and disease)
4. Individuals differ in survival and reproductive success
-over generations individuals with adaptive traits (alleles) make up a larger proportion of the population
Small scale evolution
Changes in beak size, body size, or other characteristics within a few years or generations due to natural selection
The formation of a new species
type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for assembly of amino acids in to proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are the site of protein synthesis
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
Why is it important to make an RNA transcript of a particular gene?
In eukaryotes, the master instructions for making proteins (DNA) is protected in the nucleus, yet the machinery to assemble to the protein (ribosome) is in the cytoplasm. Making an mRNA working copy of the gene allows the recipe for protein to be taken to the ribosome so that the protein can be made
What enzyme is used to help synthesize a strand of RNA?
How does RNA polymerase know where to start and stop making a strand?
binds to regions of DNA - promoters and stops at terminators
How is mRNA modified prior to leaving the nulceus?
-introns are "edited" out
-exons are spliced together
-cap and tail are added to form final mRNA molecule
building block (monomer) of a polypeptide chain
How are the properties of different proteins determined?
sequence of amino acids composing them and the shape that results from the folding of the amino acid chain
Collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a
particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
a group of three nucleotide bases that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein
where is mRNA translated?
at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
carry specific amino acids to the ribosomes as specified by mRNA
a group of 3 RNA nucleotides on the tRNA that is complementary to the mRNA codon
purpose of translation
using the info in the mRNA copy of a gene to assemble a protein
heritable changes in the genetic info
gene mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
affect only a single amino acid in a protein
What is the significance of mutations to living things?
sources of genetic variation
-can help organism adapt to different changing environments
-necessary for species to evolve (change over time)
the scientific study of heredity
How did fertilization occur in a flower?
pollen from the male flower was deposited on the female part of the same flower (self fertilization) or of a different flower (cross fertilization)
would develop identical offspring to themselves
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Mendel's principle of dominance
some alleles are dominant and some are recessive. An organism with at least one form of that dominate trait will exhibit that dominant trait. An organism for a recessive allele will only exhibit that trait when no forms of the dominant allele are present.
cool thing about F2 plants
traits controlled by recessive alleles appeared in the second generation
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