Introduction to Engineering Design review
These questions and answers are a good review for students taking Introduction to Engineering Design.
Terms in this set (67)
The development of a physical model is the result of what?
The design process
Why do engineers conduct research?
develop their knowledge base,
stimulate creative ideas, and
make informed decisions
What is the purpose of brainstorming techniques?
to generate large numbers of ideas in short time periods
Why does an engineer use an engineer's notebook?
to chronologically document all aspects of a design project
What are construction lines?
Very lightly drawn lines used as guides to help draw all other lines and shapes properly
What are object lines?
Lines drawn thick and dark; used to define the
What are hidden lines?
Lines drawn as dashed; used to show interior detail that is not visible from the outside of the part
What are center lines?
Lines that define the center of arcs, circles, or
Symmetrical parts. They are half as thick as an object line
What are dimension lines?
Lines that are used to show distance; Arrows are drawn on the ends to show where the dimension line starts and ends; the actual distance is usually located in the middle of this line to let you know the distance being communicated
What is an isometric sketch?
a form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection
What is an oblique sketch?
a type of oblique pictorial that represents an object's width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle
What is the difference between a cavalier & a cabinet oblique sketch?
The difference between the two is based on how the depth of the object is represented. Cavalier sketches show the full depth and cabinet sketches show the half depth.
What is a perspective sketch?
a form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye. Perspective drawings can be drawn using one, two, and three vanishing points
Why do designers use isometric, oblique, & perspective sketches?
to maintain an object's visual proportions
What is a multiview projection?
A drawing that shows two or more two-dimensional views of a three-dimensional object; provides the shape (the two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area) description of an object
What two things does a multiview projection communication to a manufacturer?
Shape and Size
What is a dial caliper?
the most common and versatile of all the precision measuring tools used by engineers and manufacturers
What advantage does a dial caliper have over a ruler in communicating measurements?
Can measure 4 different ways: Outside Diameter or Object Thickness, Inside Diameter or Space Width, Step Distance, & Hole Depth
Why would a designer or manufacturer conduct a statistical analysis of measurements? (Think back to the puzzle cube project & measuring the blocks to determine mean, median, & mode)
Statistical analysis of measurements can help to verify the quality of a design or process
What are geometric constraints & when are they used?
Constant, non-numerical relationships between the geometric features within a sketch. Examples include parallel, perpendicular, and concentric
What are numeric constraints & when are they used?
A number value, or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure in a sketch
What is a working drawing?
Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design
Which dimensions should be included in a working drawing?
Only the dimensions that are necessary to build and inspect an object
What are tolerances?
only the dimensions that are necessary to build and inspect an object
Why is it important for engineers to communicate tolerances to manufacturers?
to indicate the amount of dimensional variation that may occur without adversely affecting an object's function
What is an auxiliary view?
an orthographic projection of an angled surface on an object, which appears foreshortened in a typical multiview drawing.
Why do engineers use auxiliary views?
To communicate size information / dimensions about an object's inclined surfaces that appear shorter than they really are in the typical front, top, & right side views
What is section view?
A drawing that shows the interior of an object as it would appear if cut in half or quartered.
Why do engineers use sectional views?
to communicate an object's interior features that may be difficult to visualize from the outside
What are parametric constraints?
Used to control the size & location of geometry; can take the form of simple numeric values or algebraic formulas to establish geometric and functional relationships within designs
Why do engineers use parametric constraints?
Engineers create mathematical formulas to establish geometric & functional relationships within their designs.
What is a parts list & what type of information is included in it?
a table that contains information (quantity, material, part name, etc.) about each of the parts contained in an assembly; The item numbers correspond with the balloon numbers
What are balloons?
a circle that contains a single number, which is connected to an assembly component with a leader line
What is a design brief?
A concise document (no more than one page) that explains the problem, identifies solution expectations (degree to which the engineer will carry out the solution), and establishes project constraints (rules & limitations)
What information is included in a design brief?
• the client & designer
• target consumer
• problem statement,
• design statement
What are the visual design elements?
Line, Color, Form/Shape, Space, Texture, Value
What are the visual design principles?
Balance, Rhythm, Emphasis, Proportion and scale, Unity
What purpose do visual design principles & elements serve in design?
used to describe any object independent of its formal title, structural, and functional qualities
Why would an engineer perform reverse engineering on a product?
to study their visual, functional, and structural qualities
What is a decision matrix?
A system of using criteria & ratings that helps design teams make decisions
Why do engineers use decision matrices?
to help make design decisions that are based on analysis and logic
What is a technical report?
A formal report written at the conclusion of a the design process that follows a specific layout and format (according to ANSI) to communicate technical information and conclusions about projects to customers, managers, legal authority figures, and other engineers.
Why do engineers use technical reports?
to explain project information to various audiences
Identify 3 things a manufacturer must consider in determining a manufacturing process.
economics, resources human and global impacts
What are group norms?
the rules that the team agrees to follow as it conducts its work ; helps to regulate proper and acceptable behavior by and between team members
What two processes are used to determine group norms?
Brainstorming and consensus
What are the 6 degrees of freedom?
3 rotations around the X, Y, and Z axes, 3 translations along the X, Y, and Z axes
How are the degrees of freedom removed from objects in an assembly?
parameters that define the geometric relationships between components in a CAD assembly; the degrees of freedom are removed when constraints are applied
What are assembly constraints?
Constraints used to systematically remove degrees of freedom from parts placed in an assembly
What are the types of assembly constraints?
a. Mate - Constrains two faces, edges, points, or axis together
b. Flush - Constrains two faces or work features together
c. Angle - Constrains two faces or edges at an angle to one another
d. Insert - Constrains a cylinder flush into a hole
e. Tangent - Constrains a curved surface to a plane or another curved surface
When creating solid CAD models, what is the additive process?
A three dimensional object can be viewed as the combination of two or more simple forms (starting with a basic shape, then adding sketches & extruding to create the final shape)
When creating solid CAD models, what is the subtractive process?
An object can be viewed as the remainder of a solid block that has had the geometry of one or more forms sequentially removed (starting with a block that is the full height, width, & depth of the object, then adding sketches & cutting away pieces of the block until the shape remains)
What are the advantages of using CAD modeling software?
a. They increase productivity & reduce design costs
b. Allow designers to create designs for production in much less time than traditional methods
c. Allow engineers to check for design problems, verify functional qualities, & communicate information to clients & other professionals
What is the purpose of performing a functional analysis on a reverse engineering product?
It allows a designer or engineer to observe and analyze a product and organize its function into a sequence of operations
In the process of manufacturing, how are different parts of a product held together?
Manufacturers use various joinery, fasteners, or adhesives depending on the material of the product - wood, metal, or plastic.
On working drawings, what are break lines?
shows where a part is broken to reveal detail; used to shorten very long objects that do not change in detail; shown as jagged or broken lines
On working drawings, what are section lines?
Lines are used to define where there is material after a part of the object is cut away
On working drawings, what are extension lines?
Lines used to show where a dimension starts and stops on an object; Used with dimension lines to properly dimension an object
On working drawings, what are leader lines?
Leader lines are used to show dimensions of arcs, circles and to help show detail
The two dimensional contours (lines) that characterize an object are called_______.
The three dimensional contours (lines) that characterize an object are called ______.
Why are the properties of volume & surface area important for an engineer?
They are common to all designed objects & provide useful information to both an engineer & manufacturer as they design & build objects
What is ANSI? What are they responsible for?
ANSI = American National Standards Institute
They set guidelines for dimensioning and formatting on drawing sheets.
What are detail views?
Views that show a portion of a typical view up close for the purpose of dimensioning.
What is mean?
The average of data set. (The sum of data set divided by the number of data points.)
What is median?
The middle point of a data set.
What is mode?
The most frequently occurring data point in a data set.