83 terms

Chapter 26 and 27

People of Spanish descent born in America; wanted to free themselves from Spain or Portugal and take over for the Peninsulares
natives of Spain or Portugal; controlled all trade and mining
Indians of mixed Spanish and Indian heritage
Indians of mixed Spanish and African heritage
Demographics of Latin America
consisted of Creoles, peninsulares, mestizos, mulattos, and natives; European women didn't follow men to Latin America resulting in mixture of every combination of Indian, Spanish, and African blood; Peru and Bolivia had Indian majorities; Argentina and Chile had European majorities; overall still 70% Indian, Spanish rejected mixed blood
law that required Indians to buy goods solely from local tax collectors
Enlightenment and Latin America
Enlightenment ideas of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu trickled in; Norther American ships brought subversive writings of Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson; 1794 Colombian Antonio Nariño translated and published the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen at cost of 10 years in African prison; Creole elite became familiar with ideas and wanted rights of man extended to themselves
Tupac Amaru II
Incan ruler who led a revolt in 1780 in Cuzco that led 100,000s dead that led to abolishment of repartimiento system and establishment of assemblies in Cuzco; sparked Comunero Revolution in new Granada
Importance of Haitian independence
Haiti was the first successful uprising of a non-European people against a colonial power; Toussaint L'Ouverture and his successful revolution in Haiti aroused fears of revolt and class warfare
Simon Bolivar
a Venezuelan general whose victories over royalist armies won him the presidency of Gran Colombia in 1819; wanted a continental union and in 1826 called conference of American republics in Panama; but Gran Colombia splintered and he went into exile
Brazil's Independence
When Napoleon invaded Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil and made Rio de Janeiro the capital of the Portuguese Empire and opened ports to all ships; king returned in 1821 and left Pedo as regent in Brazil who proclaimed Brazil's independence in 1822 under pressure, issued a constitution, and led resistance against Portuguese troops; accepted title of Emperor ____ I
Pedro I
proclaimed Brazil's independence in 1822 under pressure, issued a constitution, and led resistance against Portuguese troops; accepted title of Emperor
Slaves in Latin America
Cuba and Brazil (which had largest populations) didn't free them until 1886 and 1888; elsewhere, independence speeded abolition because destruction of agriculture caused collapse of plantation system and fugitives couldn't be recaptured; generals on both sides offered freedom for service
Juan Manuel de Rosas
general in Argentina who assumed power amid widespread public disorder and ruled as dictator
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
general who rose as dictator in Mexico because of incessant civil strife among federal republic
Benito Juarez
a Mexican Indian who rose from poverty, led efforts to reduce power of Catholic Church and later resisted "emperor" imposed by Napoleon III in 1862; became president and served until death in 1872
a way of referring to the political and economic systems that perpetuated Western economic domination after political independence; North American and European capital supported Latin American agriculture (esp. in Mexico, Chile, and Brazil) ; US intervened on economic issues such as the Panama Canal; US interfered in Nicaragua's revolution; US marines sent to Haiti
large landed estates worked by Indians and mestizos as subordinates
low status laborers (often Indians); kept permanently in debt because they were paid in vouchers redeemable only at company stores where prices were high;
Juan Bautista Alberdi
Argentine political philosopher who published "Bases and Points of Departure for Argentine Political Organization", which argued that the development of Argentina (and all of L. America) depended on immigration because Indians and blacks lacked basic skills that would take too long to teach; ideas were incorporated into Argentine constitution
Impact of Immigration
Europe had plenty of people to send from Ireland, GB, Germany, Italy, Spain, and central Europe; Many Asians also fed to South America; Immigration led to vast urban growth; Half of overseas tonnage traveled through Buenos Aires, which also served as the center of the country's railroad network; Typically, first generation immigrants did manual labor, but sons often advanced to upper-blue-collar or white-collar jobs; Independence did little to improve the situation of the Latin American poor; Neocolonialism strengthened the position of the elite; Racism still persisted (European immigrants got urban jobs over
black plantation workers) *** Ask Porter
Samuel de Champlain
sailed down St. Lawrence River in 1608 and established trading post at Quebec City, creating the French colony of New France
trading post established by Champlain; site of decisive British victory in Seven Years' War
Quebec Act
passed by British parliament in 1774; granted religious freedom to French Canadiens and recognized French law in civil matters, but denied creation of a Canadian legislative assembly; placed power in appointed governor and appointed council of English and French Canadiens
a relatively loose form of union, leaving the separate units with substantial powers; in Canada New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec to form Dominion of Canada, whose cabinet received complete jurisdiction over internal affairs, while British still controlled foreign policy until Statue of Westminster 1931
John Macdonald
Canada's first prime minister; pushed manifest dynasty; purchased Northwest Territories in 1869 from Hudson Bay Company for 1.5 million; didn't want to lose British Columbia to U.S. so he lured into confederation with subsidies for debt and transcontinental railroad; used same tactic for Prince Edward Island
Botany Bay
a bay on the coast of Eastern Australia in which numerous specimens of plant life were discovered; it later became home to a penal colony discovered by James Cook; named because his botanist Joseph Banks discovered 30,000 specimens of plant life in bay; despite plant life it was inarable and unsuited for agriculture
James Cook
English explorer, navigator, and captain of HMS Endeavor who in April 1770 discovered Botany Bay about 10 miles south of present day Sidney; On august 21, on Possession Island he formally claimed the entire land south of the rock for King George III on legal fiction that Australia was Terra Nullius (unoccupied)
New South Wales
the name given to Australia by James Cook, the English explorer, now name of the most populous of six states of Australia
natives to Australian continent who emigrated there from southern Asia millennia earlier; nomadic people who lived off of food gathering, fishing, and hunting; never practiced warfare as understood by more technologically advanced natives around the world (ex. Aztecs); fell victim to white's diseases and spiritual malaise caused by breakdown of tribal life; numbered around 300,000 when Cook arrived
Australia as Penal Colony
Too much crime created a need to transport felons "beyond the seas"; Previously, one thousand convicts were shipped annually to Georgia; first penal colony was established at Botany Bay in August 1786; system not abolished until 1869; total number of 161,000 convicts were transported to Australia, most stayed there after sentence ended
Arthur Phillip
first governor of New South Wales who moved colony at Botany Bay to Port Jackson (Sydney) because the Bay was inarable; told prisoners that they had to work to eat and set them to planting seeds even though they were all urban criminals with no experience of agriculture; urged Colonial OFfice to send free settlers to Australia
the officers and jailers who tried to establish colonial gentry and impose rigid class distinctions from England to exclude emancipists
the lower strata of the Australian social order in the mid nineteenth century made up of former convicts
John Macarthur
credited with development of wool as Australia's staple exported commodity; was granted a large tract of Crown lands and assigned thirty convicts as laborers; conducted experiments in production of fine merino wool and sent sample to England for quality test to attract financial support
J.T. Bigge
a lawyer who was sent to Australia in 1819 to evaluate colony; persuaded by Macarthur he reported that wool was future staple and recommended that convicts be removed from the temptations of towns and seaports and dispersed to work on estates of men of capital; urged that British duties on colonial wool be suspended; Colonial Office accepted advice and pastoral economy of Australia began
Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act of 1901
closed immigration to Asians and established the "white Australia policy" which remained on books until 1970; created in fear that colored labor would lower living standards and undermine British culture; Large numbers of Asians who more easily adapted to hot climate in the goldfields led to racial prejudice
Three Emperor's League
a conservative alliance formed by Bismarck in 1873 to link the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany against radical movements
William II
German emperor who forced Bismarck to resign in 1890 and refused to renew the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, prompting republican France to court absolutist Russia with loans, arms, and friendship and in 1894 become military allies, creating two rival blocs in Europe
Great Britain's Foreign Policy
long content with "splendid isolation" and no permanent alliances, but after 1891 found itself only uncommitted Great Power; initially alliance with Russia and France seemed unlikely because they competed colonially and instead had better relations with Germany; Anglo-German relations completely broke down under William II (Germany) and Boer War; Britain then repaired relations with Japan, United States, and Frnace
South African War
convinced British leaders that they were overextended around the world and forced them to shore up exposed position with new alliances and agreements; brought about anti-British feeling across Europe;
Théophile Delcassé
French minister who offered to accept British rule in Egypt if British supported French domination of Morocco (Anglo-French Entrente of 1904)
David Lloyd George
British leader who saw German naval expansion as detestable military challenge that forced Britain and other countries to spend the "People's Budget" on ships rather than social welfare
geographic region of SE Europe that includes Serbia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, etc.; war in here was inevitable because nationalist groups were destroying their Ottoman and Austrian rulers
1878 Congress of Berlin
organized by Bismarck in response to nationalistic rebellion in Ottoman Empire to partially divide Turkish possessions in Europe; Austria-Hungary got administrative rights to Bosnia and Herzegovina; Serbia and Romania got independence; Bulgaria got partial autonomy
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to Austria-Hungary throne; assassinated by ultranationalist Serb revolutionaries (members of Black Hand) on June 28, 1914 on a state visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia
Triple Entente
the alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia; their powers checked Germany's aspirations and strangled Austria-Hungary, Germany's only real ally
Triple Alliance
the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy; Italy later left and Bulgaria and Ottomans joined
Nationalism in the Balkans
nationalism was the heart of wars here and drove arms race among Great Powers that led to war; nationalism was destroying Ottoman Empire and breaking up Austro-Hungarian War; largely led by Serbia against Austria-Hungary
"The boys will be home by Christmas"
expectation in Germany that German army would sweep through Belgium and France and return home by Christmas 1914 with easy victory; not the case and Belgium, backed by British and French defended well and fought them off
Trench Warfare
fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in life was staggering and gains in territory were minimal; destroyed generation of men through death and traumatic stress
Battle of Tannenberg
battle where Russia was stopped on the German front by General Paul von Hindenburg and General Eric Ludendorff in August 1914
Italy's neutrality
declared itself to be neutral because Austria had started a war of aggression, but ended up switching from Triple Alliance to Triple Entente on promise of gaining Austrian territory
Lawrence of Arabia
British officer who helped lead Arab revolt in 1917 that allowed British army to sweep in and break up Ottoman Empire
British passenger liner sunk by German U-Boat with 139 Americans and more than 1000 others on it; sparked American intervention in WWI
Total War
in each country during WWI, a government of national unity that began to plan and control economic (through rationing, price and wage controls, restrictions on workers' freedom of movement) and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort
War Raw Materials Board
masterminded by Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau; set up by German government to ration and distribute raw materials like foreign oil, barnyard manure, foot (got more if you worked more), milk (only to expectant mothers and children; produced substitutes (synthetic rubber and nitrates) needed to make explosives; essential to blockaded German war machine
Battle of Verdun
disastrous and bloody battle in Belgium that led to Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff becoming real leaders of Germany and the decree that all agriculture industry and labor must work work exclusively for war effort
Auxiliary Service Law
a German law passed in June 1915 requiring all males ages 17 to 60 to work only at jobs considered critical to war effort; women followed them into factories too
Labor Unions and WWI
cooperated with war governments who needed labor and in return got participation in decision making in government
Social Equality and WWI
women left home to work and became more visible in all areas; in many countries this resulted them getting the right to vote after the war; in general the war promoted social equality, blurred class distinctions, and reduced gap between rich and poor; death got rich and poor in war but sparred many aristocrats at home
Easter Rebellion
failed rebellion in Dublin in April 1916 in which Irish nationalists tried to take advantage of war strains and rise up against British rule; crushed after week of bitter fighting and leaders executed; **ask Porter about names
Georges Clemenceau
merged as ruthless and effective French wartime leader in November 1917; established virtual dictatorship, jailed without trial any strikers or dissidents who favored peace with Germany
Nicholas II
tsar of Russia who controlled army and bureaucracy but failed to partner with citizens to better war effort because he distrusted moderate Duma, rejected popular involvement and shared power, and relied on bureaucracy resulting in criticism and decision to join troops on front lines and leave Alexandra in power
Russian parliament
Tsarina Alexandra
wife of Nicholas II left in power when he joined army on front lines; allowed Rasputin to control government and went into shock when he was assassinated
Siberian priest "degenerate" who gained trust of Tsarina Alexandra by healing her hemophiliac son Alexis (heir to throne); essentially ran country and was assassinated in Dec 1916 by 3 aristocrats; seen as responsible for alienation of Russian people and downfall of the Romanov dynasty
Alexander Kerensky
socialist prime minister of provisional government who put off land reform to prevent peasant army and war effort from collapsing at the cost of a weakened government
Petrograd Soviet
a counter government that was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals who opposed provisional government
Army Order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd Soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers which led to total collapse of army discipline and widespread executions of officers
Vladimir Lenin
leader of Marxist Bolshevik party and revolution; exiled in Siberia after assassination plots and lived in Europe for 17 years where he fermented his Marxist theories (only violent revolution, still possible in Russia, could overthrow capitalism and this necessitated a highly disciplined worker's part strictly controlled by dedicated elite of intellectuals and full time revolutionaries); saw war as result of imperialistic rivalries but opportunity for class upheaval in Russia; offered safe passage by Germany to get back to Russia
the "majority group" of Marxian socialists headed by Lenin; gained power because democracy of provisional government had descended into anarchy, had determined leadership in Trotsky and Lenin (cult of personality), and appealed to soldiers and urband workers who were wearied by war and peasant revolution and seizure of land
the "minority group" of Marxian socialists who favored mass party membership
Leon Trotsky
independent radical Marxist follower of Lenin and leader of Bolshevik revolution; his soldiers seized government buildings and arrested provisional government leaders on November 6
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between Russia and Germany that allowed Russia to exit the war as revolution occurred; Russia conceded all of its western territories (1/3 of population, mainly Poles, Finns, Lithuanians and other non Russians) to Germany
Constituent Assembly
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks that was permanently disbanded after 1 day on Lenin's orders after Bolshevik delegates only won 1/4 of its seats, screwing over people who had expected self rule
War Communism
the application of total war concept to a civil conflict; the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work
the reestablished Tsarist secret police which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, spreading fear and silencing opposition
League of Nations
a permanent international organization established during the peace conference in Paris in January 1914; it was designed to protect members states from aggression and avert future wars
German Revolution of 1918
triggered by frustrated people during negotiations over an armistice in new liberal German government; sailors in Kiel mutinied on November 3 and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers established revolutionary councils on Russian soviet model; emperor fled to Holland and socialist leaders in Berlin proclaimed a German republic on November 9 and surrendered to Allies; resembled Russian Revolution but without communist element
Treaty of Versailles
the World War I treaty that declared Germany responsible for War; it limited Germany's army to 100,000 men and forced Germany to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by war and conceded Germany's colonies to France, Britain, and Japan and gave Alsace-Lorraine back to France and German territory populated by Poles was ceded to new Polish state; demilitarized Rhineland
territory on French-German border (contained Strasbourg) returned to France by Germany
American Rejection of Versailles
reversion to prewar preferences of isolationism and no entangling alliances caused U.S. Senate (and people) to reject Wilson's work in the Treaty; Republic senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge refused to ratify Treaty unless changes in articles creating League of Nations specifically pertaining to League's requirement of member states require to take collective action against aggression which they believed would undermine Congress's constitutional right to declare war; Wilson rejected all compromise and so Americans never joined League of Nations or defensive alliance with France and Great Britain