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____meter objectifies an individuals general activity


major cause of preventable death


quality of life/social participation is dependent on

ability to perform activities/physiologic functions

ICF stands for

international classification of functioning

people are developing co morbidities in early life due to

injurious lifestyles

Aging changes in cardiopulmonary system and function

airways, lung, respirtatory muscles, chest wall, alveolar capillary membrane

How does aging affect airways
1 decreases amount of ____ and increase in ____
2. medium and small airways see decrease in___
3.increase in ____

1. elastic tissue and increase in fibrous tissue
2. elasticity
3. compliance

how does aging affect lungs
1. loss of normal recoil causes uneven distribution of ____, airway ____, air ____, and impaired ___ exchange
2. _____ in alveolar surface area

1. ventilation, closure, trapping, gas
2. decrease

how does aging affect alveolar capillary membrane
1. loss of ability to diffuse ____

1. oxygen

how does aging affect the chest wall
1. joints in ____ become more rigid
2. cartlidge becomes ____
3. 3 dimensional motion of chest wall during respiratory cycle is

1. thorax
2. calcified
3. diminished

Respiratory changes with aging
1.loss of respiratory muscle ____ reduction in skeletal muscle mass
2. loss of abdominal muscle strength reduces force of
3. this contributes to

1. parallels
2. coughing
3. aspiration

Net effect of age related cardiopulmonary changes
1.increase in ____resistance and ____ compliance
2. ____ and ____ exchange become less efficient

1. airflow resistance and lung
2. lung and gas exchange

age related changes in cardiovascular system (heart electrical)
1. ____ system's frequency and regularity may become ___
2. pacemakers are implanted when
3. electrocardiographic irregularities common in 65+ (3)

1.conduction system
2. medications cannot stabilize or regulate
3. premature ventricular contractions, heart blocks, atrial fibrillation

heart changes (mechanical)
1. heart ____ less effectively with age
2.artrioventricular valves and pulmonary/systemic circulations lose ____
3. heart tissue becomes ____
4. the progressive deposition of amyloid protein

3. fattier
4. amyloidosis

Blood vessel changes
1. efficiency of _____ behavior can be expected to reduce
2. reponsiveness to neurohumoral transmitters is ____/_____

1. contractile
2. less rapid/pronounced

Blood changes
1. ability to move blood and rapidity which these changes can be effected is

1 reduced

net effects of age-related cardiovascular changes
1.increase in metabolic demand for ____, reduced capacity for ____ transport at rest

1. oxygen, oxygen

activities with low metabolic demand are ____ for older adults

physically demanding

cardiopulmonary disease is prevalent in older adults (t.f)


some chronic airflow limitations (3)

asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis

lung capacity isnt changed; changes impair efficiency of ____ mechanics


monitoring vital signs is essential during prescribed exercise (tf)


degenerative disease of the arterial vasculature, especially large arteries


physical factors that challenge the ability to maintain or increase cardiac output (think gravity) 3

1. position change
2. activity/exercise
3.emotional stress

Reduction in gravitational stress and exercise stress contributes to physiological ______ and susceptibility to ____

deterioration and illness

ability to maintain normal cardiac output during the upright position


from recumbent to upright position..
heart rate/peripheral vascular resistance _____
_____/_____ may ensue if blood compensation is not met


only means to prevent orthostatic intolerane is to assume the

upright position

cardiovascular system includes

heart, arteries, viens, blood

viens carry ____
arteries carry____

blood to heart
blood away from heart

factors that control cardiovasc health

exercise, medicine, diet, lifestyles

uncontrollable factors of cardiovasc health

age, ethnicity, gender, genes


good stress


bad stress

cardiovasc related diseases

hypertension (high blood pressure)
diabetes, cerbreal vascular accident/incident (stroke)
myocardial infarct (heart attack)
copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder)
conjestive heart failure (chf)
high chloresterol

3 factors of cholesterol



stiffining of arteries

pulmonary system

lungs, viens, bronchial tubes, oxygen

pulmonary related disease

copd, asthma, cancer, emphyseme, tuberculosis, black lung

we assess older adults to determine the

level of care

assessments through (2)


Adl =

activities of daily living


Instrumental activity of daily living

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