A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning.
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
A procedure in which the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. Also may be used to describe the "process" by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement.
subject in John Watson's experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccuring
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
Decreasing behavior by stopping or reducing positive stimuli. (Subtracting something good)
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
varies the amount of time between reinforcements
Rewards after a specific number of desired behaviors. Results in high or stable performance.
operant conditioning procedures in which organisms receive rewards for a certain percentage of behaviors that are emitted, but this percentage is not fixed
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
B. F. Skinner
American psychologist who championed behaviorism and studied operant conditioning
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.