27 terms

Classical and Operant Conditioning

Psychology
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Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Ivan Pavlov
A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning.
Unconditioned Stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Neutral Stimulus
A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response
A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
Generalization
In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.
Discrimination
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction
A procedure in which the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. Also may be used to describe the "process" by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement.
Little Albert
subject in John Watson's experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Reinforcement
An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
Punishment
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Positive Punishment
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccuring
Negative Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
Negative Punishment
Decreasing behavior by stopping or reducing positive stimuli. (Subtracting something good)
Fixed-Interval Reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
Variable-Interval Reinforcement
varies the amount of time between reinforcements
Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement
Rewards after a specific number of desired behaviors. Results in high or stable performance.
Variable-Ratio Reinforcement
operant conditioning procedures in which organisms receive rewards for a certain percentage of behaviors that are emitted, but this percentage is not fixed
Learned Helplessness
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
Spontaneous Recovery
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
B. F. Skinner
American psychologist who championed behaviorism and studied operant conditioning
Skinner Box
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
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