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APUSH progressive era
Terms in this set (58)
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
The electoral reforms that some western states inagurated to restore government by the people. Initiative: Voters can instruct the legislature to consider a specific bill. Referendum: People could directly vote on things, and policy issues. Recall pettition- Voters can remove a public official from office. Ironically, Voter participation rates declined because of thee reforms.
Investigative journalists who awakened middle class readers to the conditions in industrial America. Ida Tarbell (History of Standard Oil), Sinclair Lewis (Shame of the Cities), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) First called Muckrackers by Teddy Roosevelt because of their emphasis on the negative side of American life.
The Seventeenth Amendment was adopted in 1913 shortly after "direct primaries" were adopted. U.S. Senators were previously chosen by state legislators who were controlled by political machines. These Senators were known for dealing with mainly business matters in politics. The 17th Amendment stated that Senators were now elected by popular vote from the citizens.
Robert La Fallotte
Republican Congressman who feuded with his state's (Wisconsin) conservative party leadership. After becoming governor, adopted the direct primary system, set up railroad regulatory commission, and limited campaign spending for his state. His reforms gained national attention as the "Wisconsin Idea."
Became Hull House resident in 1981. Drove to remedy industrial abuses such as conditions in factories and sweatshops, helped prohibit child labor and limit working hours for women in Illinois. Became general secretary of the National Consumers League, which mobilized consumer preassure for improved factory conditions.
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme Court Case in 1908 that upheld an Oregon law limiting the maximum hours for working women, justified by the special state of interest in protecting women's health
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Women workers at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory died in a fire b/c the owners of the building locked them in the building in case they stole. NY legislators passed worker protection laws, fire safety inspections of factories, and made employees liable for job-related injuries or deaths after this.
Woman's Christian Temperance Movement
Reformers who wanted to ban alcohol use and prostitution.
Amendment forbids the sale and manufacture of liquor and made it illegal in 1919.
26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Anthracite Coal Strike
In May 1902, The United Mine Workers Union called a strike to gain higher wages and shorter hours, and recognition as a union. The mine owners refused to talk to UMW leaders. After months TR acted, called the two sides to the white house and threatened to take over the mines. Won reluctant acceptance of an arbitration commission to settle the dispute. Granted miners a 10 percent wage increase and reduced their working day from 10 to 9 hours.
Department of Commerce and Labor
TR est. this dept armed with the Bureau of Corporations meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era
Elkins Act/ Hepburn Act
Corporation reforms. Elkins = aimed primarily at rebate.Heavy fines could be imposed on the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them. Hepburn = free passes were restricted. Gave commission more power. Prohibited unfair railroad prices. Hepburn Act significnatly increased the government's regulatory powers.
Northern Securities decision
1904- The Supreme Court upheld Theodor Roosevelt's desire for this railroad trust to be dissolved. Broke up railroad trusts.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Pure Food And Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
TR's conservation efforts
Preservationist who backed the Conservationists call for planned development of land for public and commercial purposes. He supported the National Reclamation Act of 1902 and designated the money from public land sales for water management in arid western areas. Set aside over 200 million acres of public land as national forests, mineral reserves, and water power sites. Created the national park service act.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
Election of 1908
Republican William Howard Tafft vs Democratic William Jennings Bryan. Tafft won becuase he was good friend and Secretary of War under Roosevelt. Tafft was Roosevelt's successor
William H. Taft and Trust Busting
Prosecuted more anti trust cases than the Roosevelt adminstration but most were kept out of the press. Supported the Mann-Elkins Act which strengthened Interstate Commerce Commision's rate-setting poweres and extended its regularotry authority to telephone and telegraph companies.
High tarrif advocates in Congress pushed through the Payne Aldrich tarriff raised duties on hundreds of items. Taft signed it and praised it.
Election of 1912
The Progressive Party was an American political party. It was formed after a split in the Republican Party between incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt. Wilson won b/c of the split.
Theo Roosevelt's system in which the government would cordinate economic activity - government would regulate business
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Triple Wall Privilege
WIlson's plan to reform the economy by attacking the tariff, the banks, and the trusts
Underwood Tariff Bill
This was passed in 1913 to battle the tariff part of the triple wall of privilege, and provided a substantial reduction of tariff rates. Lobbyists tried to disembowel the bill, but Wilson promptly issued a fighting message that stopped them with public opinion. It reduced import fees and was a landmark in tax legislation because it tied into the sixteenth amendment.
The Constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax
Federal Reserve Act
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
Creates FTC as federal watchdog agency over corporations.
Clayton Anti Trust Act
Specified illegal business practices., New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions. Weakened monopolies, upheld rights of unions.
Workingmen's Compensation Act of 1916
Provides Accident and injury protection for federal workers.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
The Theory of the Leisure Class
Book by Thorstein Veblen, which stated that the rich only engaged in wasteful business, not industry that was helpful to society
Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
This woman was a reformer and pacifist best known for her 1889 founding of Hull House, an early settlement house that provided various educational and cultural activities for poor immigrants. She later became a leading anti-imperialist, an opponent of the first red scare anti-radical paranoia, and in 1931 the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to support the 1928 Kellog-Briand Pact.
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.
United States Steel Company
First billion dollar corporation, a company that avoided a strike when it voluntarily granted rights of unionization to its CIO-organized employees
a historical example of a woman who was a chronic carrier of salmonella typhi. over the course of her infection she was responsible for at least 10 outbreaks in New York
American Social Hygiene Association
Financed by John D Rockefeller and sponsered medical measures on STDS, paid for vice investigators in various cities and developed model municipal states against prostitutes.
Founded WCTU to outlaw selling/drinking alcohol. She was married to an abusive man that she killed with an axe and she didn't get punished for it. She formed a group that walked into bars with axes.
While nearly all progressives agreed that immigrants caused problems, some wanted to help them assimilate while others wanted to limit the flow of immigration. The Eugenics movement was an effort to grade races and ethnic groups based on their genetic qualities. The sterilized those who were undesireable for reproduction and believed human inequalities were hereditary and immigration was contributing to the number of unfit people.
Birth of a Nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
National American Woman Suffrage Association: American Women of Suffrage Association: focused on women voting and nothing else combined with the National Women Suffrage Association: focused on all women's suffrage, headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1890. They argued society would improve if the electorate consisted of women because it would be less corrupt. Another great leader was Carrie Chapman Catt, who was organized, politically skillful, and had a huge commitment to social reform. The NAWSA's main objective was to get women the right to vote. They focused on a state-to-state approach. After the Congressional Union (Alice Paul and Alva Belmont) focused on amending the constitution to give women the right to vote the NAWSA began focusing on constitutional amendments. By 1919 ¾ of the states agreed and the nineteenth amendment was in affect.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
She was a prominent American novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and non fiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was a utopian feminist during a time when her accomplishments were exceptional for women, and she served as a role model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts and lifestyle.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Revolutionary industrial union organized in Chicago in 1905 by delegates from the Western Federation of Mine; unionized the non-unionized
Self proclaimed anarchist, Czolgosz was the son of working-class Polish immigrants who was extremely disaffected by the growing social and economic divide within the United States. He shot President McKinley at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York on September 6, 1901.
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time)
went on a campaign for awareness of the environment; inspired creation of Yosemite National Park; became president of the Sierra Club, which was devoted to conservation
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
Law enacted to protect against child labor by prohibiting the interstate shipping of goods in which someone under 14 worked to make
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