30 terms

Body and Behavior

Psychology chapter on the brain, nervous system, and endocrine system

Terms in this set (...)

Central Nervous System
Brain & Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
A division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System
A subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Somatic Nervous System
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Enables voluntary actions to be undertaken due to its control of skeletal muscles
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to recepto sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
PET Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Phineas Gage
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
Controls how much we interpret thought and reasoning; memory involved, too
A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.
An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
6 outer layers of the brain in humans. It's where most thinking, feeling and sensing occurs.
Frontal Lobe
Largest and longest lobe in each hemisphere. Located in the upper forward half. Association areas are involved with planning, problem-solving, personality, decision making, controlling emotions and speech production
Parietal Lobe
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Temporal Lobe
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information
Occipital Lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
Limbic System
A group of neural structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotion and motivation
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
Split Brain Experiments
Objects viewed on right side can be identified verbally (left hemisphere function) Objects viewed on left side identified by touch but non verbal description (right side
Corpus Callosum
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
Endocrine System
A chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
A theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture.
Twin Studies
a common method of investigating whether nature or nurture affects behavior
Influence of our inherited traits (HEREDITY) on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
Physical and social world that influences biological and psychological development