5.6 Discuss th edevelopment of the Populist movement, including its orgins, constituency and platform
Farming conditions: credit system for farmers, graduated income tax, public ownership of utilities, less immigration, 8 hour work day, anti prtective tarrif
-secret ballot, woman suffrage, Federal Reserve, Conserve public lands
Complaints: high cost of money, lack of prosperity for farmers, fairer work conditions, less competition, government control of currency, voting issues, government ownership of utilites, high tariff
5.6 Compare and contrast the Populist and Progressive movements
Populist: economic issues, monetary, government up in bank and utilities
Progressive: reform politics as a whole, change election system, affect middle class
5.6 Why did th Populist movement decline after 1896?
1892 James Weaver runs as populist and loses
1896, Republican McKinely wins
Their requests happen. suffrage, Fed. Reserve, direct democracy, farm cooperatives, railroad regulation, conservation of public land
6.2 Define progressivism
Using government as a reform system
Change in income tax, education, bank system
6.2 What beliefs provided the idealogical foundation for progressivism
must deal with unprecedented problems of urban and industrial age
6.2 Explain the role of muckrakers in the progressive movement
Reform in health, housing, urban planning, parks, safety and compensation
Attacked malfeasance in politics in business, exposed evils of society: corruption, stock market manipulation, fake advertising, impure food, racial discrimination, lynching and gave governement issues to be reformed.
6.2 How did Progressives seek to change the political system?
People coule be more active, want direct democracy
Want "good government" to break trusts, build labor unions
Want no competiton, efficiency, and to rlieve socail and economic distress
6.3 To what degree did Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson uphold the principles of progressivism?
Roosevelt 1901-1909: anti-trust, conservation, consumer protection in "Square Deal". "New Nationalism" says no trusts, suffrage and welfare. Increases power of president. Very progressive
Taft: high tariff, less conservation (Ballinger-Pinchot Affair). Very anti-trust and pro income tax. Least progressive.
Wilson: the regulator (Clayton, underwood, Trade Act, The Fed, Fed. Farm Loan, 16th amendment). "New freedom" worked for small enterprise and unregulated markets
6.3 Why did the Bull Moose(progressive) party fail to endure?
Lost in 1912 with Roosevelt although w/ 27% of votes, highest for 3rd party in history. In 1916 Charles E. hughes dissolves it. Lack of officials under party name.
6.3 What do the results of the Election of 1912 reveal about the preferences of the American people?
People care more about whats over our heads. Sincerity and moral appeals. War on tarriffs banks and trusts.
6.3 Does the nation need a leader like Teddy Roosevelt today? Could TR be successful in today's political climate?
6.4 how did American foreign policy change during the second half of the 19th century?
Anti-imperialist to imperial. Sparked by European scramble for empire and fear they would be lesser world power (Darwinism principles too). Believed US had duty to uplift "backwards nations."
Before there was no need for imperialism because seemed anti-republican and they had no desire for people of other countries
Belief that US was losing out on global markets
US assertiveness starts with Hawaii and leads to "banana republics" in central america
6.4 how and why did the US annex Hawaii?
Sugar and pinapple growers an dAmerican minister and with soldiers overthrow Hawaiian queen.
Post capture of Manila, idea that Hawaii is needed as supply base for Dewey. Dewey leads capture in 1893 (bloodless). Cleveland says it was wrong, McKinely gets joint resolution for statehood passed in congress.
Dole declares self president. Mckinely= joint resolution to annex, fear Japanese take over
6.4 Explain Alfred Thayer Mahan's theory and its impact of US foreign policy.
"Sea power" leads to national properity. Wooden ships change to steel. *Need for more naval bases and land to accomplish goal.
6.4 Identify the major causes and effects of the Spanish-American war.
starts with Cuba rebeling against Spainish rule and America torn on how to help
Causes: Roosevelt pushes for war. USS Maine explosion. Hearst and Pulitzer "yellow journalism" make up Spanish attrocities in Cuba. Senator Protor pushes for war. Letter insulting mcKinely- Delome letter.
War in 1898: Teller Amendment says no imperial goals in Cuba. Platt amendment says US can intervene to protect Cube.
Effects: military government in Cuba. Phillippines, Puerto Rico and Guam aquired.
In Cuba, Battle of San Juan hill where rough riders win
Destroy Spanish navy at battle of Santiago
6.4 how did the US justify fighting the Filippino-American war?
"Benevolent assimilation" US wants world power. Post Spanish-American war. "White man's burden" to uplift. Need Phillippines foe Chinese interests. 250,000 die. Dewey destroy ships in Manilla. Pay Spain $20m for it. Aguinaldo already president of Catholic country. US needs foreign markets. Secure world power. "New frontier" after the west. Duty to uplift.
6.4 how did Theodore Roosevelt redefine US foreign policy?
"preventive intervention". TR afraid Germany and Britain would invade Latin America first and stay against Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt Corollary- US will pay Latin debts and is expansion of Monrow doctrine, big stick and "dollar diplomacy" ideas. said intervention was in accordance with Monroe Doctrine.
6.4 Were the dollar diplomacy and missionary diplomacy consistent with Roosevelt's foreign policy?
Dollar: use economic power to pay Latin debts. Taft continues.
Missionary: spread democracy. Wilson.
6.6 Why did the US remain neutral at the outset of WWI?
Citizens torn about war, many German Americans. Would upset progressive reform. Economic interests already supported with neutrality. Wilson believes in diplomacy
6.6 Why did the US enter WWI in 1917?
German unrestricted submarine warfare. luistania 1915. German aggression. Zimmermann note 1917. 1) bais for neutrality (side w/ allies) 2) German aggression 3) economic reasons 4) idealogical basis for intervention 5) popular oppinion
6.6 *how did the government build support at home for war?
Draft requirement, Propoganda campaign led by George Creel CIP or Committe on public Information. Anti-German sentiments to side with allies ie: rename food. Espionage act 1917 and Sedition Act 1918
6.6* What was Wilson's vision for the end of the war? Did he fulfill his vision?
Wants democracy and diplomacy, free navigation, no economic barriers, equal trade, less weapons, good foreign relations. Wants lasting peace ie: 14 points and League of Nations. Wants to avoid future conflict.
No b/c US never joins League and never signs treaty of Versailles.
6.7 *how did WWI change America?
Government and business togther. End of American innocence. End of progresivism.
6.7 *Describe the problems US faced in immediate aftermath of WWI.
Economic regulatory efforts suspended. Reevaluate legacy of war. Fear of communists (red scare). Opposition to worker gains leads to oppression of left. Race riots. Depression 1920-1921. Optimism and progressivism shatteres. Labor uproars.
6.8 *how was the 1920s a conflict between modernism and fundamentalism?
modernism: Teach learning by doing. God a good guy. Sex appeal explosion.
Fundamentalism: don't teach evolution.
6.8 Compare the presidencies of Harding and Coolidge with regards to domestic policy.
Harding: Sheppard-Towner act. Anti-immigration. 1924 National Orgins Act.
Coolidge: laissez faire
6.8 What factors led to economic growth in the 1920s?
Republican party government supports business and laissez faire. SEcretary of Commerce hoover "cooperative capitalism" to loosen regulation. Secretary of Treasury Mellon "trikle down" theroy to reduce government spending and cut taxes to promote rich investment. Raise tarriffs to protect business.
Harding: promotes expansion of industry and consumerism.
Coolidge: supports producing goods
6.8 how should American foreign policy in the 1920s be characterized?
Cooperative and pacifist: kellog-Briand Pact to outlaw war
Coolidge pay back war loans. isolationist
6.9 how did the lifestyle of the average American change in the 1920s?
cosmopolitian, urban versus rural and traditional culture
6.9 Asses the impact of the harlem Renaissance on American culture.
first artistic and literary movement in black history. Racial pride