An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Type A Personality
A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition.
Type B Personality
Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
1925-present; Field: sociocultural; Contributions: pioneer in observational learning, stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
Psychodynamic Personality Theory
theory of personality that shares the assumption that personality is shaped by and behavior is motivated by inner forces
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Freud's term for a seemingly meaningless slip of the tongue that reveals an unconscious thought
Represents, Old part of the brain, (psychoanalysis) primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced to the unconscious.
Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person.
Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.
A return to a prior stage after a person has progressed through the various stages of development; caused by anxiety.
reinterpretation to justify your actions
An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using the intellectual processes of logic, reasoning, and analysis
"Hierarchy of Needs," known for establishing a theory of a hierarchy of needs in which certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be met
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Levels of needs people must meet in order to be motivated. From bottom to top: physical, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Schizoid Personality Disorder
A type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Borderline Personality Disorder
A personality disorder characterized by repeated instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood and by impulsive behavior
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration