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43 terms

Biology - Farr

STUDY
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Large biological molecules are synthesized by removing:
water
What type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits?
hydrolysis
Which of the following reactions requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond?
glucose + galactose - lactose
Which of the following summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
Dehydration reactions assemble to polymers, and hydrolysis breaks them down.
In dehydration synthesis, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from:
both of the reactants
If digestion is ________, then synthesis is ______.
hydrolysis; dehydration
Hydrolysis may be correctly described as the:
breaking of a compound into its subunits by adding water between the subunits
Keratin and silk are examples of ________, whereas glucose and maltose are examples of _________.
proteins; carbohydrates
Dehydration synthesis involves the removal of a hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion. What happens next?
the hydrogen and hydroxyl ions interact to form water
The carbohydrate in DNA is:
deoxyribose
Chitin is an example of a:
polysaccharide
Which of the following include monosaccharide monomers?
carbohydrates
How would a chemist describe phospholipids?
They have a polar nitrogen-phosphate head and two non-polar fatty acid tails.
Which of the following is insoluble in water?
olive oil
Fats and oils are made of:
three fatty acids and one glycerol
Two classes of organic compounds typically provide energy for living systems. Representatives of these two classes are:
fats and polysaccharides
HDL and LDL are different types of cholesterol found in the blood. These compounds are:
lipids
Proteins are polymers of ______
amino acids
What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein's primary structure?
peptide
The secondary structure of a protein results from _________.
hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____________.
peptide bonds
What do peptide bonds do?
Link together the amino acids of a protein's primary structure.
What is the monomer of a protein?
amino acid
How are the amino acids connected to form a chain?
By covalent bond during a dehydration reaction.
Which levels of structure are broken when a protein is denatured?
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure
Enzymes are _________ that orchestrate chemical reactions within the body.
proteins
Organisms contain thousands of different proteins composed of __________ different animo acids.
20
The specific function of a protein is determined by the:
exact sequence of amino acids
What do carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins have in common?
covalent bonding holds these molecules together
A peptide bond forms between which of these groups?
carboxyl and amino
All of the following are polymers EXCEPT:
maltose
Complex, three-dimensional, tertiary structures of globular proteins are characterized by:
disulfide bonds
The four polypeptides that are joined together to make hemoglobin represent which level of protein organization?
quaternary structure
Which type of molecule is most abundant in a typical cell?
water
Which of the following refers to the amino acid sequence of proteins?
primary
Which of the following biological molecules are composed of amino acid subunits?
proteins
Which of the following may possess primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures?
proteins
Scientists consider prions to be puzzling proteins. Which of the following is TRUE about prions?
Prions are proteins that cause nearby proteins to change shape.
What is nucleotide composed of?
a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
The backbone of a nucleic acid molecule is made of:
sugar and phosphate group
DNA carries genetic information in its:
sequence of bases
Adenosine triphosphate is an example of a:
nucleotide
A nucleotide is made of a:
phosphate, sugar, and base