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a reference that recalls another work, another time in history, another famous person, and so forth
prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not present, to a deity or muse, or to some other power
argument from ignorance
an argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false
begging the question
this argument occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed
cause and effect
another fallacy, this is also known as post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"), and it falls under the general umbrella of a causality fallacy or false cause
a form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises, where the author assumes that you will accept the claims as true and that you will then deduce the correct conclusion from the accepted premises at the outset
one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle; basically an appeal to credibility
also known as an either/or fallacy; the suggestion is made in the argument that the problem or debate only has two solutions; can also be called the fallacy of the excluded middle
any time one of the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory) is evoked by what you have read, you have encountered this
the use of words to express something other than and often the opposite of the literal meaning
an appeal to reason; one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle
a wonderful form of word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar
a figure of speech in which what is unknown is compared to something that is known in order to better gauge its importance
a minor figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely associated
this literally means "it does not follow"; this is an argument by misdirection and is logically irrelevant
a minor figure of speech in which a sound imitates the thing or action associated with it
a major figure of speech in rhetorical analysis that seeks to create a mental discontinuity, which then forces the reader to pause and seek clarity
parallel syntax (or parallelism)
a pattern of speech or language that creates a rhythm of repetition often combined with some other language of repetition
poisoning the well
a person or character is introduced with language that suggests that he is not at all reliable before the listener/reader knows anything about him
a crucial figure of speech in an argument when what is unknown is compared to something that is known using the word "like," or "as," or "than" in order to better perceive its importance
slippery slope (also called domino theory)
this fallacy of argumentation argues that one thing inevitably leads to another
this occurs when a person engaging in an argument defines his opponent's position when the opponent is not present and defines it in a manner that is easy to attack
in its basic form, this is a three-part argument construction in which two premises lead to a truth
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