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41 terms

Fundamental Terms Test Study Guide

Aristotle's Appeals, Fallacies, and Literary Terms.
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ad hominem
an attack on the person rather than the issues at hand (a common fallacy)
alliteration
the repetition of a phonetic sound at the beginning of several words in a sentence
allusion
a reference that recalls another work, another time in history, another famous person, and so forth
analogy
a term that signifies a relational comparison of or similarity between two objects or ideas
aphorism
a brief statement of an opinion or elemental truth
apostrophe
prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not present, to a deity or muse, or to some other power
argument from ignorance
an argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false
bandwagon
also called vox populi, this argument is the "everyone's doing it" fallacy
begging the question
this argument occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed
cause and effect
another fallacy, this is also known as post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"), and it falls under the general umbrella of a causality fallacy or false cause
connotation
the associations or moods that accompany a word
deductive
a form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises, where the author assumes that you will accept the claims as true and that you will then deduce the correct conclusion from the accepted premises at the outset
denotation
the opposite of connotation; quite literally the dictionary meaning of a word
ethos
one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle; basically an appeal to credibility
euphemism
to use a safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing
false analogy
an argument using an inappropriate metaphor
false dilemma
also known as an either/or fallacy; the suggestion is made in the argument that the problem or debate only has two solutions; can also be called the fallacy of the excluded middle
hyperbole
an exaggeration, fairly common in nonfiction prose arguments, that bolsters an argument
imagery
any time one of the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory) is evoked by what you have read, you have encountered this
inductive
a form of logical argumentation that requires the use of examples
irony
the use of words to express something other than and often the opposite of the literal meaning
juxtaposition
making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite
logos
an appeal to reason; one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle
malapropism
a wonderful form of word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar
metaphor
a figure of speech in which what is unknown is compared to something that is known in order to better gauge its importance
metonymy
a minor figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely associated
non sequitur
this literally means "it does not follow"; this is an argument by misdirection and is logically irrelevant
onomatopoeia
a minor figure of speech in which a sound imitates the thing or action associated with it
oxymoron
two words that together create a sense of opposition
paradox
a major figure of speech in rhetorical analysis that seeks to create a mental discontinuity, which then forces the reader to pause and seek clarity
parallel syntax (or parallelism)
a pattern of speech or language that creates a rhythm of repetition often combined with some other language of repetition
passive voice
the opposite of active voice; in this voice, something happens to someone
personification
giving human attributes to non-human things
poisoning the well
a person or character is introduced with language that suggests that he is not at all reliable before the listener/reader knows anything about him
red herring
an argument that distracts the reader by raising issues irrelevant to the case
simile
a crucial figure of speech in an argument when what is unknown is compared to something that is known using the word "like," or "as," or "than" in order to better perceive its importance
slippery slope (also called domino theory)
this fallacy of argumentation argues that one thing inevitably leads to another
straw man
this occurs when a person engaging in an argument defines his opponent's position when the opponent is not present and defines it in a manner that is easy to attack
syllogism
in its basic form, this is a three-part argument construction in which two premises lead to a truth
synecdoche
a minor figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole
understatement
this creates exaggeration by showing restraint; it is the opposite of hyperbole