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32 terms

Life Span Chapter 2

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Evolutionary Psychology
emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior.
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made up of DNA
DNA
a complex molecule with a double helix shape that contains genetic information
Genes
units of hereditary information composed of DNA Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life.
Mitosis
cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell
Meiosis
specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm
Mutated Gene
permanently altered segment of DNA
Genotype
all of a persons genetic material makes this up
Phenotype
consists of observable characteristics
Down Syndrome
a chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
Klinefelter Syndrome
a genetic disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY
Fragile X Syndrome
a genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks
Turner Syndrome
a chromosome disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX
The XYY Syndrome
a chromosomal disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome
Behavior Genetics
the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.
Twin Study
the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins
Adoption Study
a study in which investigators seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parent, or more like their biological parents
Passive genotype-environment correlations
patents who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for a child
Evocative genotype-environment correlations
occur because a child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments
Active genotype-environment correlations
occurs when children seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating
Niche-Picking
finding a setting that is suited to one's abilities
Epigenetic View
development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment
Germinal Period
prenatal development that takes place in the first 2 weeks after conception, the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
Embryonic Period
prenatal development that occurs 2-8 weeks after conception, embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, supports system for the cells form, organs appear
Organogenesis
organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development
Fetal Period
prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on the average
Teratogen
any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy
Natural Childbirth
method attempts to reduce that mother's pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation techniques during delivery
Prepared Childbirth
developed by french obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, this childbirth strategy is similar to natural childbirth but includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and a more detailed anatomy and physiology course.
Apgar Scale
a widely used assessment of the newborn's health at 1 & 5 minutes after birth
Postpartum Period
the period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about 6 weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state