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HI407 Midterm pt. 2
Terms in this set (123)
He lacked the "American touch", couldn't connect to the common person, he enjoyed bathing in the nude ans walking around D.C, played pool in the evenings, asked congress to raise taxes in inaugural address
Describe JQA and his personality.
Firm vision, refused to fire people who opposed him, had opponents within administration and within congress
Describe Adams's presidential vision
made it his mission to keep JQA from accomplishing his agenda while president, very outspoken, from Roanoke, doesn't like JQA or Henry Clay, gave speech in senate about corrupt bargain
Describe John Randolph or "John Randolph of Roanoke"
JQA: "Holier than thou" and Clay: "degenerate"
What did John Randolph call JQA and Henry Clay?
took place in Virginia, both miss first shot, settled their differences, Clay owed him a coke
Describe the Clay/Randolph duel.
1) Congress to fund improvements: roads, canals, harbors
2) Create national university of the people
3) Taxpayers fund astronomical observatory to promote science
List the three wants that were in JQA's address to congress.
opposers attack him, program seemed over the top, congress doesn't pass any of his plan
What was the response to the 3 wants of JQA?
1) Federally funded internal improvements
2) High tariffs to protect U.S. industry
3) Second bank of the U.S. regulates economy
Describe the American system.
faced major setbacks, Adams wanted tighter bonds with rising countries in Latin America, southerners were against this because it would threaten slavery
How were foreign/indian relations when JQA was president?
Georgians encroaching on creek land, treaty between u.s. and creeks: treaty of indian springs, JQA nulled this treaty
Describe GA v. Creek Indians.
treaty was a scam, re-negotiated and came up with the treaty of washington
Why did Adams null the treaty of indian springs?
one million acres returned to the creeks, others were fairly compensated
What was the treaty of washington?
furious and refused to recognize it, governor threatened war w federal government
How did Georgians respond to the treaty of washington?
He backed down and let Georgians take the Creek's land. This is a huge victory for those in favor of state's rights (flaunted it to the gov)
What did JQA do after the governor of georgia made threats?
responsible for formation of dem. party, very smart, good friend of jackson, became next president, born in Kinderhook NY, 1st language was dutch, strongly believed in Jeffersonian republic
Describe everything you know about Martin Van Buren
aka Albany Regency was a political faction led by one person and they give people incentives to follow them
What was the "Political Machine" headed by Van Buren?
"Red fox of kinderhook" because he was sly, and "little magician" because he was sneaky
What were two nicknames given to Van Buren?
very close, Van Buren was the brains behind the democratic party and Jackson was the symbol that everyone sees, they were total opposites but complimented each other very well
Describe Van Buren and Jackson's relationship.
Aka the "Democratic Coalition", supporters all over the nation, seeks opponents of JQA and Crawford, wanted new legislation to create a tariff law
What was the Coalition?
Jackson supporters, opponents of JQA, farmers and laborers
What three groups made up the Coalition?
The tariff of abominations
What was the Tariff of 1828 also known as?
beneficial to small farmers and laborers, massive tariff protections for New England in order to make JQA look bad, enough support to pass congress, raised tariff rates by 50%
Describe the Tariff of 1828.
Blames it on JQA when addressing southerners, but talks it up to Northerners
How did Van Buren handle the Tariff of 1828?
Get Jackson elected, lacked over all ideology
In the early stages, what was the primary goal of the democratic party?
best and worst of politics brought out
Describe the campaign of the election of 1828.
Andrew Jackson and JQA
Who were the two candidates in the election of 1828?
1) Newspaper support for one candidate
2) Symbolism on both sides
What were the 3 big characteristics of understanding politics during the campaign of 1828?
Newspaper editor, very effective at promoting or demoting candidates, ran a newspaper for Jackson's campaign known as the U.S. Telegraph, Green was a former supporter of Calhoun but Jackson converted Green and Calhoun to his side
Who was Duff Green?
Who was Jackson's VP in the Election of 1828?
manhood, fighting power and the possible future of America, very simple, common man
What symbol was Jackson portrayed as by the Telegraph?
illiterate, uneducated and unsophisticated, a "Jackass"
How was Jackson portrayed by his opponents?
no, doesn't work at all, the democrats spin the term "jackass" to their advantage (hard working)
Does the negative portrayal of Jackson by his opponents work?
portrays him as a tyrant, attacks his marriage (Jackson's wife was never divorced from first marriage), attacks his mother (common prostitute who married a mulatto man)
How did JQA's administration attack Jackson during the mudslinging portion of the campaign?
Who does Jackson blame for the horrible mudslinging aimed at him?
Jackson won by landslide, won electoral and popular vote, participation rose by 4 times
What were the results of the Election of 1828?
Jackson's wife dies in mid-December before he is inaugerated, blames her death on Henry Clay
What tragedy strikes Jackson just after he is elected?
March 24, 1829
When was Jackson inaugerated?
huge crowd shows up, address lasted for 10 mins, promised reform of the government and planned to get rid of those who didn't support him, reception was outrageous (mob, liquor)
Describe the Inaugeration of Jackson.
father owned tavern in D.C., very independent, fell in love with John Timberlake
Who was Margaret Eaton?
rumors start about affairs with other men, John Henry Eaton shows up (Senator who frequently stayed at the tavern)
What happened while John Timberlake was out at sea?
some say he committed suicide by slashing his throat because he could not bear the thought of Margaret with another man
What was said after John Timberlake's death?
JHE and Margaret get married, at that time a woman was expected to mourn the death of her husband for at least one year
After John Timberlake's death, what sparked even more rumors in D.C.?
Secretary of War
What position did Jackson give to Eaton?
main one who ostracized margaret and encouraged others to do the same, complained about her working in the tavern and her lower class background
What role did Floride Calhoun play in the scandal?
Jackson laid down the law to cabinet members about bashing Margaret, Eaton and Calhoun were not present, change the way you treat her or else....
What happened at the cabinet meeting during the petticoat affair?
all cabinet members resigned, John Eaton and Margaret move to TN, staffs cabinet with loyal men
What occurs after nothing changes with the way Margaret was treated by cabinet members and their wives?
1) Jackson re-organizes cabinet
2) Jackson/Calhoun relationship ruined
3) Martin Van Buren/Jackson relationship very strong
What were the 3 big outcomes of the scandal?
informal advisors who did not hold official titles but who Jackson turned to when he needed advice
What was the "kitchen cabinet"?
Calhoun wanted to de-rail Jackson's plans, became political enemies, cut all ties with friends, fires duff green because he was friends with calhoun
How did the Jackson/Calhoun relationship change?
member of the kitchen cabinet, key architect of democratic coalition, started new newspaper called the Washington Globe
Who was Francis Preston Blair?
December of 1832, moves back home to South Carolina, resigned because he heard that Jackson planned on appointing Van Buren as his VP for his next term
Describe Calhoun's resignation as VP
senate overturns because of political past, Calhoun was the deciding vote and voted "no", this is when Jackson decides to fire Calhoun
What was the conflict with Van Buren and being appointed as the ambassador for Great Britain?
Should Federal land be expensive or should he lower prices?
What was Jackson's question he had to answer regarding land policy once he was elected?
Old Northwest and Old Sourthwest
Which part of the country wanted cheap public land?
Northeast to help industry
What part of the country wanted high land prices? Why?
had most influence on Jackson about land prices, senator from Missouri for 30 years, very loyal democrat, symbol for western movement, got into bar fight with Jackson but they patch it up and he becomes avid follower of Jackson
Who was Thomas Hart Benton?
Pre-emption and graduation
What were Thomas Hart Benton's two big beliefs on the topic of land?
price of land slowly goes down over time, lower price until someone eventually buys it, each year price goes down by 0.25, land could go as low as 0.25
Describe the idea of graduation
answer to issue of land squatters, made it easier for squatters to legally own this land, minimum price for land they squatted on
Describe the idea of Pre-emption.
Pre-emption bill of 1829
graduation bill does not pass
Jackson takes stand on cheap Western land
Dem. party view: land should be cheap
What legislation came out of the two main ideas of land?
infrastructure: roads, canals, harbors, lighthouses, bridges
Define internal improvements.
1: High tariffs
2: Second bank of the U.S.
3: Federally funded internal improvements
What were the three components of the American System?
only improved the internal improvements that were National in scope (this made them constitutional). Supported I.I. in the territories because it was Nationally owned land
What was Jackson's philosophy on internal improvements?
written by Jackson, Van Buren, and Polk
rejected road funding for road in Kentucky because it did not have national benefit
Describe the Maysville Road veto
Cheap land and National scope internal improvements only
What was the official democratic party?
had a falling out with Jackson, had to do so w/o Jackson's favor, latches onto the idea of nullification
How does Calhoun decide to advance his career?
Individual states had the right to deem acts by the federal government as null and void. Extreme state rights position
What does nullification apply to?
1) land was becoming worn out from over production, people were leaving the state, worried about lack of population
2) Price of cotton had began to decline, threatening economy
3) Concerns about outdated rice cultivation, price of rice dropping leading to economic downfall
4) White population lived in constant fear of slave revolts: outnumbered white population, fear and paranoia
What were four big things that S.C. was facing?
some states had the right to leave the union if they couldn't get what they wanted which was very radical and extreme
How did extreme nullifiers view the union?
started thinking sectionally
surprised Andrew Jackson
he became bolder
states are supreme over federal
Describe John C. Calhoun's outlook as a politician.
state of S.C. found tariff unconstitutional and nullified in S.C.
found the tariff to only help out industry and left the rural south out to dry, therefore unconstitutional
Explain the South Carolina Exposition and protest.
did not believe in nullification, wanted to see congress modify the tariff and make it reasonable, wanted traditional solutions, found nullification as absurd
What was Jackson's stance on nullification?
used to promote nullification, verbal duel between Jackson and Calhoun, after this Calhoun begins to speak out more publically about the idea of nullification
What happened on April 13th at Thomas Jefferson's birthday dinner?
new tariff which was much more reasonable, many supported it, JQA helps steer the new reasonable tariff, passes congress and Jackson signs it into law
Tariff of 1832
S.C. ad Calhoun are still not happy, they become attached to a stigma as political radicals, very extreme group
How did S.C. respond to the new and "improved" tariff?
1) Calhoun and followers: Nullification but no breaking of the Union
2) Radical nullifiers: Break the Union
3) Unionist: didn't like the tariff but did not want to go through traditional corrective channels
What are the 3 Factions in S.C.?
nullifiers represented in large numbers
passed an ordinance of Nullification
tariffs null and void in S.C.
stop collecting taiffs
include the threat to succeed from the union
no other southern state follows S.C.
What happened at the S.C. convention?
Issues a public proclamation. nullification is in opposition to the constitution and a threat to the union. he would use the full force of the presidency to enforce the law: nullification treason
How did Jackson respond to S.C. actions?
Jackson uses it to make it clear to a S.C. congressman that he will use the full force of the federal gov. to overcome the issue of nullification. preparation of navy and army
What was the Force Bill?
gradual reduction of tariff rates over time, acceptable to all, sectional forces are gaining ground, S.C. nullify the force bill to save face
Describe the compromise tariff.
1) War of 1812
2) Heroes of founding generations aka founding fathers
3) Same ethnic background
4) Religion (protestant Christian)
6) Manifest destiny
List the 6 sources of nationalism.
1) Differing views on power of God
What are the two sources of sectionalism?
became political gospel; says state wouldn't have to obey a national law if they didn't think it was constitutional
Describe resolutions made by states like Virginia and Kentucky.
slave population counted only when it comes to political representation, which gives southern states more power in the gov.
Why did slavery cause sectionalism?
wanted to raise $ to send slaves to either latin america or africa. members: henry clay, james monroe and james madison. Most white southerners thought this was dangerous to slavery
Describe the concept of the American colonization society.
lack of funding, difficulty of transportation, didn't want to end slavery
Why didn't the american colonization society work?
viewed slaveholders as sinners, didn't want compensated ending of slavery, wanted immediate emancipation
Free African american from NC, never a slave, relocated to Massachusetts where he started a newspaper: only way to overthrow slavery is through violence. kill or be killed
Who was David Walker?
he felt like they were endangering peace and security of the country and gives green light to master general to instruct post masters to stop distributing Abolitionist materials
How did Jackson feel about abolitionists?
abolitionist petitionists couldn't be discussed on the floor of congress or senate
What was the Gag rule?
1) Gabriel's conspiracy (VA)
2) New Orleans rebellion (LA)
3) Nat Turner's rebellion
List three of the major slave rebellions.
he could read, preachers who saw visions from God, began by slaughtering entire family of owners, killed between 50-60 whites n the south, worst slave rebellion
Describe Nat Turner's rebellion.
saw them as potential enemies instead of potential partners, saw them all as abolitionists, southerners believe their society s the best in the world
How did southerners view northerners in terms of abolition movement?
needed to be moved, viewed them as foreign nations, which meant they required formal treatments, obstacle to american greatness
What was the american attitude toward native americans?
23 mil. acres surrendered, Jackson didn't negotiate w/ the chiefs that he fought, but instead with the chiefs he knew wanted to negotiate.
Describe the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
created many treaties w/ many tribes, got his way by threatening, forged treaties, bribing, moving them somewhere else will save them from extinction
Describe Jackson as an Indian negotiator.
state legislature sad all laws will apply to Cherokees, gold rush on Cherokee land, takes Indian policy into its own hands
What was the issue of states rights concerning the Indians in Georgia?
Jackson sided w/ Ga, idea of autonomy would not be recognized in his administration, advised N.A. to immigrate beyond M.S. river or submit to the laws of state, not super popular barely passed
What was the Indian removal bill of 1830?
senator from N.J. gave speech on half of morality, said the gov. was "dropping the ball", very religious
Who was Theodore Freilinghuysen
1) president set aside land for Indian Territory
2) Property left behind would be appraised and justly compensated
3) N.A. were supposed to be provided w aid on journey and new settlement
4) Fed. Gov. promised to make sure there was law and order
What were the 4 provisions of the Indian Removal bill?
SCOTUS: No jurisdiction in case b/c the Cherokee nation was not a state, but they hint at being sympathetic with the Cherokee
Outcome of Cherokee v. Ga?
Christian missionaries were working w/ Cherokee in Ga, missionaries were sentenced to 4 yrs of hard labor. Scotus sided w/ Cherokee nation: Ga law was null and void on Cherokee land
Describe the case of Worcester v. Ga.
empty victory for the Cherokee, Jackson still stands by Ga, Jackson is very inconsistent w/ his position on state's rights
What was the outcome of Worcester v. Ga?
Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole
What were the 5 civilized tribes to be removed by the Indian removal bill?
20-25% of cherokee died in moving
What was the outcome of the trail of tears?
seminole resists removal, violence breaks out for 5 yrs and then seminoles got tired of fighting and agreed to move. 30,000 American troops fought, 1,500 died. Federal gov. spent $20 mil on this war
What was the 2nd Seminole War?
printed currency, a promise to exchange gold and silver coinage, were not a form of legal tender because there was no regulation. Were often circulated at a discount, were very unreliable
What were bank notes?
would print lots of bank notes but knowingly did not have enough specie
What were wildcat banks?
gold and silver coins that were the only form of federal money
What were specie?
only real national bank of the U.S. funded by tariffs, taxes and land sales.
What was the second bank of the U.S.?
designed to help with collection of taxes
What was the purpose of the second bank of the U.S.?
issued bank notes but always had enough specie for them, added stability to the economy
What were the positives of the second bank of the U.S.?
felt that banks helped the rich and hurt the poor, very suspicious, felt as though hard $ or specie was the proper form of exchange. Panic of 1819 clenches this idea for him, felt they were unconsititutional
How did Jackson view banks?
to put Jackson on the spot and force him to make a decision about the 2nd bank of the U.S. and hopefully further divide the democratic party
What was the campaign tactic used by republicans before the election of 1832?
wanted to extend the charter for the 2nd bank of the U.S. for 15 more years. huge supporter of the bank and he was to be the next presidential candidate running against jackson
How did Henry clay feel about the 2nd bank of the U.S.?
president of the bank of the U.S. makes a proposal to extend the bank for 15 yrs if clay promises to get it passed
Who was Nicholas Bittle?
public press and newspaper
How did Clay and Bittle campaign?
no, Jackson vetoed it. he and kitchen cabinet wrote out a veto message in which Jackson attacked the bank for being corrupt for aristocrats and unconstitutional. Charter not extended
Was the recharter for the 2nd bank of the U.S. passed or extended?
Democrats: bank as source of corruption
Republicans: Jackson as a dictator
What were the two foundational campaign ideas for the democratic and republican parties?
remove all federal money from the bank, taking away its power
How did Jackson plan on killing the monster, aka the second bank of the us?
the third secretary that Jackson hired who finally agreed to take money out and put it in state banks.
Who was Roger Toney?
state banks that were under jackson's control
What were pet banks?
Jackson manages to kill the bank, but was centured for it.
This led to the influx of state banks.
Jackson's illegal move caused some supporters to leave the party.
What was the outcome of Jackson removing the federal money from the second bank of the U.S.?
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