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93 terms

mis 250 exam 1 terms (ch 1,2,3)

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Chief information officer
exec position who is responsible for leading the overall information systems component within an organization and integrating new technologies into the organization's business strategy
Collaboration system
software designed to enable people to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate with each other
Competitive advantage
firm's ability to do something better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely than a rival in the same market
Data
raw material, recorded, unformatted information such as words and numbers
Downsizing
practice of slashing costs and streamlining operations by laying off employees
Hardware
physical computer equipment
Information
representation of reality
Information systems/Computer-based information systems
combinations of hardware software and telecommunications networks that people use to collect, create, and distribute useful data in organizational settings
Information technology
machine technology that is controlled by or uses information
Internetworking
connecting host computers and their networks together to form even larger networks
Knowledge
understand relationships between different pieces of information
Knowledge society
growth in knowledge workers that eventually become important and thus become leaders; education is the cornerstone
Knowledge worker
professionals who are relatively well educated, who create, modify, and synthesize knowledge as a fundamental part of their jobs
New economy
alternative term to knowledge society
Office automation system
collection of software and hardware that automates office tasks
Outsourcing
moving of routine jobs and/or tasks to people in another firm, at less cost.
Service mentality
belief among information systems personnel that their chief goal is satisfying their systems customers within the firm while fundamentally believing that the customers own the tech and info
Software
program that tells a computer to perform certain processing functions
Strategic
way of thinking in which plans are made to accomplish specific goals
Systems integration
connecting separate information systems and data to improve business processes and decision making
Technology
any mechanical/electrical means to supplement, extend, or replace human, manual operations or devices
Telecommunications networks
group of two or more computer systems linked together with communications equipment
Wisdom
accumulated knowledge
Concept of time
longer and shorter term orientation
Culture
collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category from people of another
Domestic company
companies within the US(mostly small to local businesses)
Embargoes
type of export regulation concerning the flow of goods and services, typically limiting trade with one particular country
Export regulations
regulations directed at limiting the export of certain goods to other countries
Geoeconomic
economic and political factors that influence a region
Global business strategy
company trying to achieve economies of scale by producing identical products in large quantities for a variety of different markets (Sony)
Globalization
integration of economies throughout the world, enabled by innovation and technological progress
Globalization 1.0
first stage of globalization (15th century to 1800s), power from horses, wind, and steam. European countries were globalization shrinking the world from large to medium. Industries changed slowly and globalization effects were barely noticed.
Globalization 2.0
second stage of globalization (1800s to 2000), driven by reduction of transportation and communication costs. Mainly American and European countries were globalizing shrinking the world from medium to small. Changes still happening at a slow pace.
Globalization 3.0
third stage of globalization(from 2000 on) driven by convergence of ten "flatterers" shrinking world from size small to tiny, changes are happening at a faster pace making people readily feel the effects of industry changes
Home replication strategy
most basic form, business views international operations as secondary to their home operations (Porsche)
Individualism/collectivism
reflects the extent to which a society values the position of an individual versus the position of a group
In-forming
allows individuals to utilize search engines to build their "own personal supply chain of information, knowledge, and entertainment"
In-sourcing
refers to the delegation of a company's logistics operations to a subcontractor that specializes in that operation
International business strategy
strategy for competing in different global markets
Life focus
what extent a culture focus on the quantity versus the quality of life
Maquiladoras
assembly plants located on the Mexican side of US-Mexican border to take advantage of lower wages and less stringent regulations
Masculinity/femininity
male: assertiveness, or female: nurturance
Multidomestic business strategy
Offshoring to retain knowledge in specific market
Nearshoring
use of locations closer to the home country in terms of geographical, political, linguistic, economic, or cultural distance
Offshoring
having certain functions performed by the same company but in a different country
Offshore outsourcing
outsourcing of business processes on a global scale
Power distance
how different societies handle the issue of human inequality and sheds light on inherent power structure whining organizations and teams
Quotas
regulation permitting foreign businesses to export only a certain number of products into a specific country
Tariffs
government imposed fees to regulate the flow of goods and services in and out of a country
Transborder data flows
data flowing across national boundaries
Transnational business strategy
business that determines which aspect of the business should be under central control, and which aspect not in central control(decentralized)
Uncertainty avoidance
risk taking of a culture
Uploading
ability of individuals and companies to actively participate in content generation on the web, allowing anyone to be a producer of information instead of a consumer
Wiki
websites allowing users to add, remove, edit content
Work flow software
software applications that allows for software-to software interaction
Automating
completing tasks within an organization faster, more cheaply, and perhaps with great accuracy
Best-cost provider strategy
strategy to offer products or services of reasonably good quality are competitive prices
Break-even analysis
type of cost-benefit analysis to identify at what point tangible benefits equal tangible costs
Business processes
activities organizations perform in order to reach their business goals, consisting of core processes and supporting processes
Cost-benefit analysis
techniques the contrast the total expected tangible costs versus the tangible benefits for an investment
Differentiation strategy
strategy in which an organization differentiates itself by providing better products or services
Discount rate
rate of return used by an organization to compute the present value of future cash flows
Disruptive innovations
new technology, product, or service that eventually surpasses the existing dominate technology, product, or service in a market
E-business
variety of types of IT and systems to support every part of business
E-business innovations cycle
extent to which an organization derives value from a particular IT over time
Economic opportunities
opportunities that a firm finds for making more money or money in new ways
Enabling technology
IT that enables a firm to accomplish a task or goal or to gain or sustain a competitive advantage in some way
Freeconmics
leverage of digital technologies to provide free goods and services to customer as a business strategy
Informing
ability of IT to provide information about operation within a firm and underlying work process
Innovator's dilemma
notion that disruptive innovations can cause establish firms to lose market dominance
Intangible benefit
benefit of using a particular system or technology
Intangible cost
cost of using a particular system or technology
Learning organization
organization that is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights
Low-cost leadership strategy
strategy to offer the best prices in the industry on gods and services
Making the business case
process of identifying, quantifying, and presenting the value provided by an IS
Net-present value analysis
type of cost-benefit analysis of cash flow streams associated with an investment
Nonrecurring costs
onetime costs that are not expected to continue after a system is implemented
Organizational learning
ability of an organization to learn from past behavior and information improving as a result
Organizational strategy
firm's plan to accomplish its mission and goals as well as to gain or sustain competitive advantage over rivals
Productivity paradox
observation that productivity increases at a rate that is lower than expected when new tech is introduced
Proxy variables
alternative measurements of outcomes, used when it is difficult to determine and measure direct effects
Recurring costs
ongoing costs that occur throughout the life cycle of a systems development, implementation and maintenance
Strategic necessity
something an organization must do to survive
Strategic planning
process of forming a vision of where the organization needs to head,
System effectiveness
extent in which a system enables people/firm to accomplish goals or tasks well
System efficiency
extent to which a system enables people or firm to do things faster, at lower cost, or with relatively little time and effort
Tangible benefit
benefit of using a particular system or technology
Tangible cost
cost of using a particular system of technology
Total cost of ownership(TCO)
cost of owning and operating a system, including the total cost of acquisition as well as all costs associated with its ongoing use and maintenance
Value chain
set of primary and support activities in an organization where value is added to a product or service
Value chain analysis
process of analyzing an organizations activities to determine where value is added to products or services and the costs that are incurred
Value proposition
what a business provides to a customer and what that customer is willing to pay for that produce or service
Weighted multicriteria analysis
method for deciding among different IS investment or alternative designs for a given system