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Cytoplasmic Cell Membrane

Proteins> lipids> carbohydrates
little mechanical strength
Same in gram +ve and -ve
osmotic barrier
cell wall synth
cytochrome activity

facillitated diffusion
Active transport
Secondary active transport
Group transporters

Transport across the cell membrane

Cell wall

Peptidoglycan layer- acetylglucosamine and acetylmumaric acid
Cross linking is mediated by transpeptidases and carboxypeptidases
provides rigidity
prevents osmotic lysis


loose polysaccharide layer
prevents phagocytosis and opsonisation


Helically coiled protein
Provides rapid movement
moderately antigenic


Hair like structures
critical virulence factor in Neisseria ghonnorhea
Bind to specific molecules

Sex pilli

E.coli provide virulence
Transfer of DNA inter-specifically and inter-generalically

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