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Vocabulary #6 - AP World History: Modern
Terms in this set (37)
Queen of Angola (circa 1581-1663) who fought against the slave trade and European influence in the 17th century. Known for being an astute diplomat and visionary military leader, she resisted Portuguese invasion and slave raids for 30 years. A skilled negotiator, she allied herself with the Dutch and pitted them against the Portuguese in order to resist Portuguese domination.
West African kingdom (modern day Ghana) that became more powerful as a result of participating in the Atlantic slave trade as well as overland trade with states across the Sahara.
Battle of Diu
Naval battle fought in 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of Muslim powers. The Portuguese victory eased their strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean trade route down the Cape of Good Hope, circumventing the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians through the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making.
Crop that is cultivated to be sold to gain profit from the sale. Europeans found that they could adapt the plantation or hacienda model and coerced labor structure to capitalize on cash crops such as sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, indigo, rice, and eventually cotton.
The cassava (or manioc) is a woody shrub that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate.
The expansion of trade and commerce in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Any of the leaders in the Spanish conquest of America, especially of Mexico and Peru, in the 16th century. Conquistadors considered themselves the new nobility, but given more to fighting and the search for gold than to governance, they were quickly replaced by administrators and settlers from Spain.
Series of military conflicts between the Cossacks and the states claiming dominion over their territories, namely the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russian Empire during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Both states attempted to exert control over the independent-minded Cossacks.
A term used in colonial Spanish America to describe a person born in the Americas of European parents.
Dutch East India Company
Trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state's trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the powerful Dutch commercial empire in the East Indies (present-day Indonesia). It was dissolved in 1799.
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Large heavily armed ship used to carry silver from the New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
A large estate with a dwelling-house, originally given by monarchs in Latin America as a reward for services done. Such estates are known as estancias in Argentina and fazendas in Brazil.
Merchants from the Indonesian island of Java, many of them ethnic Chinese, who interacted with Dutch traders in the 16th and 17th centuries to control the trade of spices such as cloves and nutmeg.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic missionary and educational order founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534.
Joint stock company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
Kingdom of Kongo
West African state that became a centralized power in the region of modern-day Angola. The capital, Mbanza and surrounding areas were densely settled which allowed the king to have access to the manpower and supplies necessary to rule. Portuguese exploration in the area led to the conversion of the king and most of the nobles to Christianity.
An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries.
(in the New World) Mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. European settlers and their West African slaves transmitted the disease to the Native Americans and it quickly spread to the Carolinas, Maryland, Georgia, Alabama and Florida and then west to Ohio, Missouri and the Gulf of Mexico.
A group of formerly enslaved Africans and their descendants who gained their freedom by fleeing chattel enslavement and running to the safety and cover of the remote mountains or the dense overgrown tropical terrains near the plantations. Many of the groups are found in the Caribbean and, in general, throughout the Americas.
(in the New World) Highly contagious infectious disease caused by a virus. It killed two-thirds of the natives of Cuba in 1529. Two years later, it was responsible for the deaths of half of the population of Honduras, and then ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization.
In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and Indian descent.
(or King Philip's War) Armed conflict between English colonists and the American Indians of New England in the 17th century. The uprising lasted 14 months and was the last major effort to drive the English out of New England. The wide scale destruction caused such devastating financial losses that the English expansion in the region completely stopped for 50 years.
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the transportation of Africans from Africa to the Americas.
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, a person of mixed African and European descent.
Arab maritime merchants who repeatedly traveled to the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, the west coast of India, and even to East Africa to engage in profitable trade. Muscat, their port city, had a fine deep-water harbor and was located at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, which were also to Muscat's advantage over the trade of the Persian Gulf.
In the Spanish colonies, those who were born in Europe.
Series of revolts from 1645-1692 in which Pueblo Indians fought colonization and conversion to Catholicism by the Spanish. One revolt in 1680 succeeded in overthrowing Spanish rule in New Mexico for 12 years. Captured Indians were tried in Spanish courts and received severe punishments - hanging, whipping, dismemberment (of hands or feet), or condemnation to slavery.
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided for fair wages.
(in the New World) Extremely contagious and deadly virus for which there is no known cure. Among the "new" infectious diseases brought by the Europeans, smallpox was one of the most feared because of the high mortality rates in infected Native Americans.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 treaty in which the pope divided unexplored territories between Spain and Portugal.
The eighteenth-century trade network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
A political unit ruled by a viceroy that was the basis of organization of the Spanish colonies.
Wealth of Nations
Published in 1776, by Adam Smith, it is a clearly written account of political economy at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution that is widely considered to be the first modern work in the field of economics. The work is also the first comprehensive defense of free market policies.
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