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2.6 and 4.4 Test
What are the monomers of proteins?
Which of the following is not a component of an amino acid?
What are the two functions of proteins?
Enzymatic and structural
What is unique about the 20 or so amino acids?
What type of bond links amino acids together?
What do you call many amino acids joined together which are folded up to make a functioning protein?
Which of the following are protein molecules that are produced to catalyze specific reactions? They are organic catalysts.
What are the monomers of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA?
Which of the following is not a compound of DNA?
Deoxyribose is the ____ in DNA
Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine are the ___ in DNA
Adenine only pairs with _____ in DNA
Cytosine only pairs with ____ in DNA
Which is NOT a difference between RNA and DNA?
DNA has a phosphate group in it but RNA does not
What is unique about the DNA of different people?
The sequence of bases is unique for each person
Where does transcription occur?
Which of the following accurately describes the process of replication?
As DNA strands are separate, free nucleotides are added to both strands following the complementary base pair rules. It results in two DNA molecules that are identical to each other and to the original DNA molecule.
What is the enzyme that is involved in replication?
Which process uses the DNA sequence to make a specific RNA sequence?
Which process copies the DNA?
Where does replication occur?
Which of the following accurately describes the process of transcription?
A section of the DNA molecule is separated and complementary base pairs are added to one of the DNA strands forming an RNA strand. As the enzyme moves along the DNA molecule the RNA strand peels off and the DNA molecule closes back.
What is the enzyme involved in transcription?
Group of 3 bases
Which of the following is not a modification that happens to mRNA?
Cutting out the codons
What determines the base sequence in RNA?
The base sequence in DNA
What directly determines the amino acid sequence in a protein?
The base sequence in RNA
Which process uses an RNA sequence to make an amino acid sequence?
Which of the following contains the codons that are translated into an amino scid sequence?
Which of the following contains the anticodon which is complementary to the codon and also carries the amino acid that corresponds to the codon? It is like an interpreter.
Which of the following makes up the organelle that can be embedded in the rough endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm. This organelle coordinates the process of translation.
Where does translation take place?
Some codons code for multiple amino acid.
It is important to eat a balanced diet because our bodies do not have the capabilities to convert organic molecules into other organic molecules.
Which of the following describes cellular respiration?
The breaking down of a food substance into usable cellular energy in the form of ATP
Which of the following describes cellular respiration?
Uses oxygen to help break down glucose to form ATP, and water and carbon dioxide are waste products
Cellualar respiration releases energy from glucose, so what type of reaction is it?
Even though autotrophs can make their own food, they still have to undergo cellular respiration so they can break down that food and make ATP.
Which of the following lists the stages of aerobic cellular respiration in the correct order from beginning to end?
Glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, Kreb's cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
Where does the Kreb's cycle occur?
During the Kreb's cycle, what happens to acetyl- CoA
It combines with oxaloacetic acid
Where does glycolysis occur?
During glycolysis, glucose is converted into which of the following?
During the oxidation of pyruvate, pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA. Where does this occur?
Which of the following stages of aerobic cellualr respiration does not produce ATP?
Oxidation of pyruvate
Which stage of aerobic cellular respiration produces the most ATP?
Which stage of aerobic cellular respiration produces water?
Which stages of aerobic cellular respiration prodice NADH?
Glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, and Kreb's cycle
Which stages of aerobic cellular respiration produce carbon dioxide?
Oxidation of pyruvate and the Kreb's cycle
Which stage produces FADH2?
How much ATP is produced through the whole process of aerobic cellular respiration?
Which of the following are electron carriers that pass their electrons to the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation?
NADH and FADH2
Which of the following correctly describes how water is formed during aerobic cellular respiration?
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor during oxidative phosphorylation. Oxygen picks up 2 electrons and 2 hydrogen ions and that makes water
As electrons are passed through the elctron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation, energy is slowly released that is used to make ATP via a process called chemiosmosis. Which of the following describes that process of chemiosmosis?
Hydrogen ions are actively transported into the intermembrane space to create a high concentration. Then they diffuse into the matrix thorugh ATP synthase which makes ATP
What is the final electron acceptor in the elctron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation?
About how much of the energy in glucose is put into ATP through the process of cellular respiration?
Anaerobic cellular respiration is also known as which of the following?
Both types of anerobic cellular respiration that we discussed in class begin with which process?
How much ATP is produced through anaerobic cellular respiration per molecule of glucose?
What occurs in muscle cells to produce ATP when oxygen is not available?
Lactic acid fermentation
What occurs in yeast when oxygen is not available which causes bread to rise?
Carbon dioxide is used in the process of cellular respiration
Haploid cells like the sperm and then egg that are produced through the process of meiosis
Gamete that is produced in male animals
Gamete that is produced in female animals
Process that forms ova. It produces 1 mature ovum and three polar bodies
Process that forms 4 functional sperm
The male reproductive organs where meiosis occurs
The female reproductive organs where meiosis occurs
The process where a male and female gamete are united
The cell that is produced when the male and female gamete unite
The process that occurs during meiosis I when homologous chromosomes come together
The process that occurs during meiosis I when gentic information is exchanged between non sister chromatids
This is formed when homologous chromosomes come together during meiosis I
1 set of chromosomes
2 sets of chromosomes
Which of the following correctly lists the subpahses of mitosis and meiosis in order form beginning to end?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase. telophase
It divides the cytoplasm to form two cells from one cell
True or False regarding cytokinese?
What are the subphases of interphase?
What happens during interphase?
The cell grows during interphase and the DNA is replicated during S phase
What does mitosis produce?
2 genetically identical daughter cells
What does meiosis produce?
4 haploid gametes that are genetically unique
What is a karyotype?
A picture of the pairs of chromosomes of a cell
Which of the following is false?
In animal cells, once the cell is divided, a new cell wall forms around the membrane
Which of the following is not a use of mitosis?
It produces gametes
Which of the following is not a form of asexual reproduction?
When does synapsis and crossing over occur?
Prophase 1 of meiosis
Cytokinesis creates genetic variation in gametes by randomly dividing the chromosomes
Sister chromatids are separated during anaphase 1 of meiosis 1
Which of the following is false regarding Gregor Mendel?
He is known as the Father of Medicine
Which law says that meiosis produces gametes which are haploid, meaning they only contain one set of chromosomes?
Law of segregation
Which law says the inheritance of allele for one characteristic does not affect the inheritance of an allele for a different characteristic because of independent orientation and crossing over?
Law of Independent Assortment
Humans have 26 pairs of chromosomes
Alternate version of a gene. They are located in the same position on homologous chromosomes
An individual who does not express an X-linked trait, but they have the gene for the trait
Section of DNA that codes for a protein that leads to a trait
The genetic make-up of an individual organism
The particular site on a chromosome where a gene is located
The trait that is expressed even in the presence of the contrasting trait
The trait that is not expressed when in the presence of the other trait
The physical expression of an organism's genes
When both alleles in an organism are the same
When the alleles in an organism are different
Study the punnett squares and pedigrees
Evolution is a change in _____ frequency in a _________ over ______
Natural selection is when individuals whose _______ ________ give them a higher probability of _________ and _________ in a given ________ tend to have more _________ than other individuals, which leads to evolution within the population
inherited traits, surviving, reproducing, environment, offspring
Parts in different species that are structurally similar, but serve different functions
Any direct or indirect evidencce of a once-living oragnism
An alternative version of a gene
A group of population whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
A group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisiting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that codes for a protein
What type of evolution occurs within a species?
What type of evolution leads to the production of a new species?
What type of evolution attempts to explain where all living things came from?
Origins of life
Why is Lamarck's theory of evolution incorrect?
Lamarck thought that acquired traits could be passed on to offspring
What is the mechanism of evolution?
An area of study that deals with fossils and living things and how they are dispersed throughout the Earth
The Earth's crust is divided into plates that move and result in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions describes which of the following?
An area of study that deals with similarities in bone structures and stages in embryological development among different species
The fact that different species share a common genetic "language" is another observation that can be used to support the theory of evolution. Which of the following is this related to?
Which of the following accurately describes how pests could evolve as a result of pesticide application?
A pest population includes some individuals who are resistant to a pesticide and that trait is genetically based. The resistant pests are able to survive and reproduce,so their genes increase in the population over many generations
A population of bacteria including a resistant strand is bathed in antibodies. Most of the bacteria die, but the resistant bacteria multiples and becomes more common in the population. What type of evolution has occured?
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