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Sociology

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the idea the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activites and choice of clothing describes
free will
the systematic study of human society
sociology
the strange in the familiar
reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initiality strange idea that society shapes our llives
sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in europe
emile durkheim
because there is more social isolation in rual areas of the united states than in urban areas we would expect suicide rates to be
higher in rural areas
social marginality
being defined by others as an outsider
c. wright mills claimed that the sociological imagination transformed
personal problems into public issues
europe, israel, japan, and australia are
high-income nations
almost all latin america and asia are
middle-income nations
why is it important to understand the world beyond our own borders
all of the above
making use of sociological perspective encourages
challenging commonly held beliefs
which of the following historical change is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a disipline
the rise of industrial factories and cities
main goal of sociologys pioneers like comte and durkheim is
to discover how society actually operates
what is a way of understanding the world based on science
positivism
sociologists agree that science is a big part of sociology but most also recognice that
all the above
how and why specific facts are related is
theory
to evalutate a theory, sociologists
gather data or fact
in deciding what kinds of questions to ask in their research sociologist are guided by
one or more theoretical approaches
assumes society is a complex system whose parts world together to promote solidarity and stability
structural-functional approach
using structural functional approach which of the following questions might you ask about marriage
what are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society
term for negative consequences
social dysfunctions
accurate criticism of the structural functional approach
it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict
"framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change"
social-conflict approach
using social conflict approach a sociologist might highlight which of the following
all of the above
what approaches are macro level, describing societies in broad terms
structural-functional and social-conflict
what is micro-level focus
two poeple on an airplane getting to know each other
criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach
ignores how structural factors such as class affect peoples experience
simplifed discription unfairly applied to every person in some category
stereotype
sociological generalizations
all of the above
science can be defined as
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
empirical evidence
information we can verify with our senses
sociological perspective reveals that
much of what passes for "common sense" in the united states turns out to be at least partly wrong
imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept age as
variable
involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable
operationalization
the arithmetic average of a series of numbers
mean
the value that occurs midway in a series of numbers
median
in measurement, reliability refers to
whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results
measuring exactly what one intends to meansure
validity
two variables are said to display correlation if
they vary together
false association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called
spurious correlation
ability to neutralize the effect of one variable in order to assess the relationship between two other variables
scientific control
true about cause and effect relationships in social world
most patterns of behavior are caused by many factors
ideal objectivity means researchers
must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research
a statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables
hypothesis
three researchers wish to test the effects of playing soft music during an exam on the test performance of their sociology students. they conduct an experiment in which one text taking class hears music and another does not. in experimental terms the calss hearing the music is called
experimental group
any change in a subjects behavior caused by the awareness of being studied
hawthorne effect
smaller number of people used to represent an entire population
sample
whats wrong with " do you think the the government should spend less for defense and more for health care?"
two different questions are being asked
inductive logical thought involves
transforming specific observations into general theory
a way pepole can mislead others with statistics
all of the above
beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that make up peoples lifes
culture
intangible world of ideas created by members of society
nonmaterial culture
cars, computers, and iphones are examples of
material culture
what we find everywhere around the world
people create cultural systems
homo sapiens first appeared on earth how long ago
250,000 years
a shared way of life; political entity
culture; nation
symbol
anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture
cultural transmission refers to the process of
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another
conveys the point of the sapir-whorf thesis
people see the world through cultural lens of their language
standards by which poeple who share culture find as desirable, good, and beautiful
values
rules about everyday casual living; rules with great moral significance
folkways; mores
wrong- doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating cultural
mores
elements of social control in everyday life include
all of the above
tangible or physical human creations
artifacts
what statement about technology is true
improves life in some ways but threatens it in others
what is important in the postindustrial, computer based phase
gaining symbolic skills including speaking writing and computing
subculture
cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population
claim that us culture is dominated by european and especially english ways of life
eurocentric
counterculture
cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held
cultural integration refers to the fact that
change in one cultural patten is usually linked to changes in others
cultural lag refers to
some cultural elements change more quickly than others
three different ways cultural change is set in motion
invention, discovery, diffusion
the spread of cultural traits from one society to another
diffusion
a person who criticizes the amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses and a plow instead of using a tractor is displaying
ethnocentrism
understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards
cultural relativism
adds to the creation of global culture
all of the above
the stability of the us society rests on the core values shared by most people
sociobiology approach
cultural universals are elements of culture that
are part of every know culture
linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism
the social-conflict approach
why does culture at as a constraint limiting human freedom
humans cannot create new culture for themselves
culture is a source of human freedom because
as cultural creatures, humans make and remake the world for themselves
people who interact in a defined territory and share culture
society
sociocultural evolution
changes that occur as a society acquires new technology
hunting and gathering societies were the only kind on the earth until wheh
12,00 years ago
social standing of women and men in hunting gathering societies
fairly equal, with men and women making a vital contribution to survival
horticultural societies are those that
people use simple hand tools to raise crops
as societies generate a greater productive surplus their people generally
gain more productive specialization
type of society that engages in large scale farming based on the use of plows drawn by animals or more powerful energy force
agrarian
the development of more complex technology
has both positive and negative effects
type of society with most productive specialization
industrial
films like frankenstein make a point that advancing technology
not only solves some problems but creates new ones
postindustrial society is based on
an information based economy
the driving force of social change
advancing technology
the widespread beliefs that supported the capitalist economic system
false consciousness
those who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
capitalists
alienation
experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
to compare societies at different times in history, max weber made use of
ideal types
traditional societies
people pass the same values and beliefs from generation to generation
rationality
deliberate matter of fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish any task
max weber claimed that modern society had become
disenchanted
weber traced the origins of the capitalist economy in europe to
the protestant reformation
comparing and contrasting the ideas of karl marx and max weber which of the following statements is true
both marx and weber thought modern society was alienating although for different reasons
max weber described the features of rational social organization pointing to all but one of the following. which one is not part of his analysis
people in the workplace share highly personal realationships
elements of society, including cultural norms, values, and beliefs as
social facts
the importance of a social structure such as family
family plays a part in the operation of society
a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
anomie
durkheim claimed that societies change as....... gives way to.........
mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity
who held the most optimistic view of modern society
emile durkeim
who was most interested in how society in divided
karl marz
who would you ask about societys worldview to be a powerful force causing change
gerhard lenski
life long social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture
socialization
persons fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking and feeling
personality
nature versus nurture
nurture is far more important than nature
lesson learned from the cases of anna isabelle and genie
all of the above
"self"
the part of an individuals personality composed of self awareness and self image
origin of the self
social experience
"taking the role of the other"
imagining a situation from another person's point of view
"looking glass self"
people see themselves as they think others see them
the people children take the role of as they model themselves on important people in their lives
significant other
the stages of development
imitation, play, game, generalized other
socialization
personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages
why is family important to the socialization process
all of the above
the special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes
exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting
the special importance of the peer group is the fact that it
lets children escape the direct supervision of parents
when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would life to join
anticipatory socialization
in us a tv is turned on for how many hours a day
7
looking at childhood in global perspective we find that
rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
industrial societies typically define people in old age as
more out of touch and less socially important than younger adults
life course
while life course stages are much the same throughout the world
a category of people with a common characteristic usually their age
cohort
not linked to total institution
staff members encourage the individual growth and creativity of inmates
resocialization process
all of the above
people act and react in relation to others
social interaction
you occupy a number of statuses, these statuses make up your
status set
defines who and what we are in relation to others
status
social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life
ascribed status
social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort
achieved status
people thinking julie is always a cop
master status
being an honor student is an example of
achieved status
behavior people expect of someone who hold a particular status
role
role set
a number of roles attached to a single status
tension among roles connected to a single status
role strain
mom balancing being an artist and mom
role conflict
process by which people disengage from important social roles
role exit
designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact
social construction of reality
thomas theorem
situations defined as real are real in their consequences
likely to play a part in the reality we construct through social interaction
all of the above
social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
dramaturgical analysis
presentation of self
efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
an important element of non verbal communication
all of the above
people usually make an effort to ......... their intentions
idealize
save face
tact
major function of emotion is to
support group life by forging connections with others
culture differ in terms of
all of the above
arlie hachschild explains that companies typically
try to regulate the emotions of workers
women often take the family name of men upon marriage in sociological terms this is an example of how language can be used to convey
power over others
whatever has greater power, value and importance
masculine