19th Century Native American History
Terms in this set (35)
"The Prophet" He inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them; killed by Harrison at battle of Tippecanoe
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 - William Henry Harrison took a preemptive strike on Prophetstown, which resulted in a minor military victory. However, the defeat suffered by Tecumseh's forces led to a loss of prestige. The alliance formed by Tecumseh weakened, sided with the British in the War of 1812.
Treaty of Fort Wayne
Treaty which allowed the USA to gain 3 million acres of Delaware and Potawatomi land in Indiana. This led to Tecumseh threatening to align with the British and to kill chiefs attempting to carry out the treaty.
Battle of the Thames
Fight in which General Harrison defeated British forces in the Northwest. Tecumseh died during this battle, ending the Northwest Indian alliance.
•Chief of Upper Creek
•fought to keep Creek
Land (called the Red Sticks)
Creek War (1813-1814)
-Red Stick Creeks allied with the British, Creeks aligned with the Americans
Battle of Tohopeka (Horseshoe Bend)
March 1814. Massive defeat for the Red Sticks at the hands of Andrew Jackson. Approximately 800 of the 1000 Red Stick soldiers died in this battle, which ended the Creek War.
Treaty of Fort Jackson
Signed late in 1814, ended the Creek War and forced the Creek to give up 23 million acres of their land. Much of this land was taken from the Creek who formed an alliance Jackson during the Creek War.
1803 purchase of the rights of exploration to the Louisiana territory from France. The move accelerated the westward movement of Americans into Indian territory.
Native American tribe that let Lewis and Clark camp out with them for the winter in North Dakota. Their villages served as a crossroads to trade. They were wiped out by an 1837 Smallpox pandemic.
A Shoshone woman whose language skills and knowledge of geography helped Lewis and Clark.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
Principal Chief of the Cherokee Indians who tried to use legal means to fight against removal.
Johnson v. M'ntosh
Court case that determined that tribal lands may only be sold to the U.S. government, not private citizens. Marshall utilizes the international Doctrine of Discovery as part of his case.
Doctrine of Discovery
the European colonial principle that the state that "discovered" or arrived first in a new territory had the right to occupy and administer it without interference from other states
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a separate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status" defined as a Domestic Dependent Nation
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Treaty of Echota
1835 treaty made with American officials and a small Cherokee faction that took their land from them and insisted that all Cherokees abide by it and move to the New Indian Territory.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Black Hawk War
Chief Black Hawk of Sauk tribe, led rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox ppl murdered; tribes removed to areas west of Mississippi
The Oklahoma territory was carved out of land that was home to the Omahas, Otos, Missouris, Kansas, Pawnees, and Osages
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion in the 1820s and 1830s
Mireau B. Lamar
2nd President of Texas. Pushed for ethnic cleansing in Texas. "the proper policy to be pursued toward the barbarian race is absolute expulsion from the country." when referring to Comanche, Apache, and Kiowas.
Council House Fight, 1840
Meeting between Comanche's and Texans to exchange prisoners. The peace delegates of the Comanche were killed. The Comanche tortured and killed most of their hostages when word spread. This ignited continuous conflict between Comanche and Texas Rangers
Treaty of Fort Laramie
the treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation along the Missouri River
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Medicine Lodge Treaty
The Kiowa, Comanche, Kiowa-Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho signed this treaty which stated that these Plains Indians would have to live on reservations, learn to farm rather than roam the prairies, and learn and live the white man's way of life. The Indians in return would be protected from white hunters, receive food and clothing, and have its own reservation.
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Chief of the Ponca tribe who sued the government in Standing Bear v. Crooks. He won the right to return to Nebraska. He now is commemorated by the state of Nebraska as one of their two statues that are allowed at the U.S. Capital.
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
Dawes Act of 1887
authorized the federal government to break up tribal lands by partitioning them into individual plots. Only those Native American Indians who accepted the individual allotments were allowed to become US citizens.
The objective of the Dawes Act was to assimilate Native American Indians into mainstream US society by annihilating their cultural and social traditions.
Over ninety million acres of tribal land were stripped from Native American Indians and sold to non-natives.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
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