1870 -1920 Kill the Indian and Save the Man
Terms in this set (20)
Ely S. Parker
President Grant appointed him as Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, the first Native American to hold that post. Lawyer and engineer.
Century of Dishonor
1881 book by Helen Hunt Jackson in which she describes the history of the government's relations with American Indians as "a shameful record of broken treaties and unfulfilled promises."
Indian Rights Association
Alleged friends of the Native Americans. Wanted to save Indians by assimilating them into white culture. Supported severalty, land ownership by individuals. Zero Indians actually in the group.
Carlisle Indian School
in Pennsylvania to educate and civilize Indians, motto = "Kill the Indian and save the man"
The system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Act of 1887. Within these reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.
The Dawes Allotment Act
1887 law that divided up reservations and allotted parcels of land to individual Indians as private property. "Surplus" land would then be sold off. Those who abandoned tribal ways were to be given citizenship in the U.S.
U.S. government commission that negotiated with tribes near Oklahoma. "Surplus" land was sold to the government at the price set by the government.
Dissolved the Indian Territory and abolished tribal governments
Osage Reign of Terror
oil discovery on Osage reservation in Oklahoma leads to profit but then murder in 1920s as people position to reap the rewards. The FBI is eventually called in to stop the murders.
Lakota who attended Carlisle Indian School. Later, he shot a U.S. lieutenant. Despite admitting guilt, a federal court acquitted him as a belligerent during a state of war to prevent the Seventh Cavalry from legally being charged of murder at Wounded Knee.
Haskell Indian Nations University
federally-operated tribal university located in Lawrence, Kansas, for members of federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States
Major Crimes Act of 1885
Unwilling to tolerate murder and perceived lawlessness on Indian reservations, Congress worked quickly after the Crow Dog decision to amend a situation they believed was in desperate need of repair. In 1885, the U.S. legislature passed the Major Crimes Act, which places seven major offenses under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American against another Native American in Native territory. Murder, manslaughter, rape, arson, larceny, burglary and felony assault are covered under the Act. Unlike the Crow Dag ruling, the Major Crimes Act reduced the internal sovereignty of native tribes by removing their ability to try and to punish serious offenders in Indian country.
Ex Parte Crow Dog
1883: Supreme court recognized that Native American Nations have authority regarding criminal jurisdiction on their lands
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
A 1903 Supreme Court ruling that Congress could make whatever Indian policies it chose, ignoring all existing treaties.
Winters v. United States
1908 Supreme Court case in which American Indians were recognized as having federally reserved water rights.
William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill)
Entrepreneurs and entertainer who hired American Indians, including former prisoners of the Ghost Dance conflict, to travel the world performing "Wild West" shows exploiting culture perceptions of the American West.
Native American who, in 1950, was voted the greatest athlete of the 20th century. Born on the Sauk & Fox Reservation in Oklahoma during 1887, he eventually attended Carlisle. He earned varsity letters in: football, track, baseball, boxing, wrestling, lacrosse, gymnastics, swimming, hockey, handball, and basketball. In 1912 he won gold medals in the pentathlon and decathlon. He also played major league baseball for the New York Giants.
Society of American Indians
Founded in 1911, the Society of American Indians was a reform organization typical of the era. It brought together Indian intellectuals to promote discussion of the plight of Native Americans in the hope that public exposure would be the first step toward remedying injustice.
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
Legislation that granted all American Indians the legal protection and voting rights of U.S citizens.
The Problem of Indian Administration Report
a.k.a. the Meriam Report, 1926 research that claimed problems confronting American Indians included: poverty, ill health, and despair from trauma. The report said since the old economic ways could not be recreated, assimilation at least in accordance with a minimum standard of health and decency should become the goal. The report called for an end to allotment and to boarding schools.
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